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  Nagarjuna ... A Bodhisattva in South India, born into a Brahman family about 800 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni, i.e., 200 AD. He was the founder of Madhyamika (Middle Way) and Sunya (emptiness). He had plenty of writings in Buddhism. He was one of the chief philosophers of Mahayana Buddhism.

  Nataputta ... The founder of Jain religion, i.e. Jainism.

  Nayutas ... A Sanskrit word interpreted as a numeral, 100,000 or one million or ten million.

  Nine Realms .. The nine realms of error, or subjection to passions, i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm. The nine realms are: the hell, the hungry ghost, the animal, the man, the Asura, the gods, the Arhat (sound hearer), the Arhat (enlightened to condition), and the Bodhisattra.

  Nine Stages of Lotus Flowers ... Or Nine Grades, Classes of Lotus Flowers, i.e. upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, upper medium, middle medium, lower medium, upper inferior, middle inferior and lower inferior, which represent ninefold future life into Pure Land. The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land, corresponding to the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one's distance from Amitabha, the consequent aeons that are required to approach Amitabha, and whether one's lotus will open early or late.

  Nirvana ... Nirvana is a Sanskrit word which is originally translated as "perfect stillness". It has many other meanings, such as liberation, eternal bliss, tranquil extinction, extinction of individual existence, unconditioned, no rebirth, calm joy, etc. It is usually described as transmigration to "extinction", but the meaning given to "extinction" varies... There are four kinds of Nirvana: 1.Nirvana of pure, clear self-nature 2.Nirvana with residue 3.Nirvana without residue 4.Nirvana of no dwelling

  Nirvana of pure, clear self-nature ... It is commonly possessed by all individual sentient beings. It is not subject to birth and death, nor increase and decrease. Nirvana with residue... The cause, but not all the effect (Karma) of reincarnation is cut off and removal of the obstacle of affliction, but not that of what is known (Dharma), thus the body which remains is subject to birth and death. Those beings are Arhats. Nirvana without residue... Both the cause and effect of reincarnation are extinguished, both afflictions and what is known (Dharma) are extinguished. All kinds of suffering are externally in stillness. There is no further residue. Those beings are Bodhisattva. Nirvana of no dwelling... With the aid of interactive wisdom and compassion, those who do not dwell in birth and death, nor in Nirvana, but continue to cross living beings over forever.

  No Strife Samadhi ... Strife means debating and fighting. It is a kind of Samadhi, i.e. right concentration/meditation. To cultivate and attain this Samadhi, one will not argue or angry with others as one has no differentiation between self and others.

  Nagas ... (Literally, dragons.) A class of deities with great wisdom.

  Nayuta ... (Sanskrit) A very large number.

  Nine realms ... The entire universe.

  Nirvana ... (1) Enlightenment. (2) The point in time at which a Buddha or other enlightened being leaves our world and moves on to the Buddha-realms. See also "Parinirvana."

  Nine Realms ... All realms in the cosmos, with the exception of the Buddha realms.

  Om ... The most simple, yet sacred mantra in Buddhism, also used in other Indian religions.

  One Buddha Vehicle ... Also known as Supreme Vehicle. In Buddhism, the Five Vehicles are established to facilitate us to understand the reality of Buddhahood. The teachings of One Buddha Vehicle is the ultimate, perfect and complete truth of Buddha, which is unconceivable and beyond words, as stated in the Lotus Sutra.

  On the causal ground, I used mindfulness of the Buddha to gain patience with the non-production of Dharmas. This is a passage that occurs near the end of the section of the Shurangama Sutra titled "Chapter on the Foremost Attainment of Great Strength Bodhisattva through Buddha Recitation" (one of the five principle Sutras used in Pure Land Study). The passage means that when Great Strength Bodhisattva first resolved to attain enlightenment, during periods when he felt he was making no progress on his quest, he cultivated patience using the Pure Land technique of mindfulness of the Buddha. Subsequently, by continuing to practice this technique, he attained enlightenment.

  Ou Yang Jing Wu ... A Buddhist scholar who founded the Zhi Na Nei school in Nanjing. In 1945, Ou Yang delivered a lecture titled "Buddhism Is Not a Religion and Not a Philosophy, but Is Essential in This Age." Master Chin Kung quotes from this book in Chapters 1 and 3 of his book, "Understanding Buddhism."

  Outflow ... A characteristic that is common to all the various phenomena in the world, which are made up of separate, discrete elements -- that is, "with outflows," or with no intrinsic nature of their own. Merits and virtues with "outflows" are said to be conditioned -- that is, they lead to rebirth within samsara. Conversely, unconditioned merits and virtues do not have outflows and can therefore bring about liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

  Pali ... The language of the Theravada (Hinayana) Buddhist Canon, alleged to be the language used by the Buddha.

  Paramita ... It means to cross over from this shore of births and deaths to the other shore which is the Nirvana... The Six Paramita or means of so doings are (1) dana - charity/giving (2) sila - moral/conduct/taking precepts (3) ksanti - patience (4) virya - vigor/devotion/energy (5) dhyana - contemplation/meditation (6) prajna - wisdom... The Ten Paramita are the above plus (7) upaya - use of expedient or proper means (8) pranidhana - vow of bodhi and helpfulness (9) bala - strength (10) intelligence

  Childers gives the list of ten as the perfect exercise of charity/almsgiving, morality, renunciation, wisdom, energy/effort, patience, truth, resolution/determination, kindness/universal love and resignation/equanimity. Each of the ten is divided into ordinary, superior and unlimited perfection, making up to thirty in total.

  Parinirvana ... Not death, but perfect rest, i.e. the perfection of all virtues and the elimination of all evils.. Also a release from the suffering of transmigration and an entry to a state of fullest joy.

  Patience ... Endurance, the third Paramita. There are groups of two, three, four, five, six, ten and fourteen, indicating various forms of patience, equanimity, repression, forbearance, both in mundane and spiritual things. Patience refers to bearing insult and distress without resentment.

  Pratyeka-Buddha ... The second stage in Hinayana, the first or initial being that of Sravaka. He is enlightened to the conditions, i.e. the Law of Dependent Origination. He seeks enlightenment for himself and understands deeply Nidanas. He attains his enlightenment alone, independently, or a teacher, and with the object of attaining Nirvana and his own salvation rather than that of others.

  Prajna ... There are three kinds of Prajna: (1) Prajna of languages (2) Prajna of contemplative illumination (3) prajna of the characteristics of actuality... The last one is the ultimate wisdom, which is the wisdom of Buddha. Also see wisdom.

  Prajnativadinah ... One of the Hinayana School, a branch of the Mahasanghikah, which held the view that there was a distinction between mere concepts and real entities (referred to in Buddha's teaching) i.e. phenomenality and reality, based on Prajatisastra.

  Pure Land ... Generally refers to the Paradise of the West, presided over by Amitabha. Also known as the Land of Ultimate Bliss. Other Buddhas have their own Pure Lands, all of which are the adornment of merits and virtues in moral or spiritual cultivation. The Pure-Land Sect whose chief tenet is salvation by faith in Amitabha; it is the popular cult in China and Japan.

  Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss ... This is the Buddha Land of Amitabha Buddha. In Amitabha Sutra, there is full description about this Pure Land. This is the world of utmost joy without suffering. With the spiritual power of Amitabha Buddha, all beings in this world willnderstand Buddhism easily and practise diligently, and attain enlightenment eventually. Therefore by reciting Amitabha Buddha's name, Buddhist followers hope that they will be born in this Pure Land after their lives on earth. See also Nine Stages of Lotus Flowers.

  Pure Land of Vairocana ... The Lotus world, also the Pure Land of all Buddhas in their Sambhogakaya or Reward Body/Enjoyment Body. Above the wind or air circle is a sea of fragrant water, in which is the thousand-pedal lotus with its infinite variety of worlds. Hence, the meaning is the Lotus which contains a store of myriads of worlds.

  Paramitas ... Six stages of study and practice followed by the Bodhisattvas in their progress to Buddhahood. They are (1) charity, or alms-giving; (2) discipline, or observance of precepts; (3) forbearance, or patient resignation; (4) energy; (5) concentration; and (6) wisdom. Although, there are usually said to be six paramitas, sometimes their number is expanded to ten (with the addition of expedients, vows, power, and knowledge).

  Parinirvana ... The great Nirvana (enlightenment) of the Buddha.See also "nirvana ." peeled off his skin for paper, split his bones to fashion brushes, [and] drew blood for ink (Said of Shakyamuni Buddha in Chapter 40 of the Flower Adornment Sutra.) In his most ancient lives, during prehistoric times, there were no such things as paper, brushes, or ink, so he wrote out countless Sutras on his own peeled-off skin using splinters of bone for brushes and blood for ink.

  Perfect Penetration ... Complete penetration of the knots of the senses, which frees one of attachments to sense-objects, resulting in release from the cycle of birth and death and the attainment of enlightenment.

  Pishachas... Ghosts that eat the vitality of things. They eat people's essential energies, as well as the essential energies of foods.

  pi zhi fo ... See Pratyka Buddhas.

  Pishachas ... Ghosts that eat the vitality of things. They eat people's essential energies, as well as the essential energies of foods.

  Practices and Vows of the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra ... See "Universal Worthy's Conduct and Vows."

  Prajna ... (Sanskrit) transcendental wisdom, divine intuition; one of the six paramitas.

  Pratyeka-Buddha ... pi zhi fo, a Buddha who has attained Buddhahood using techniques taught in the Small Vehicle school of Buddhism. Pratyeka-Buddhas attain enlightenment through the intellect and self-discipline. They lack the loving compassion and self-sacrifice of the Bodhisattvas. Pratyeka-Buddhas can also be defined as Buddhas who are enlightened to "conditions ."

  Precepts ... See "Five Precepts."

  Pure Land ... A Buddha-lland created by Amitabha Buddha for cultivators who chant his name with single-minded wish to be reborn in his land. The Pure Land is an ideal place for cultivation, abounding in adornments and spiritual delights, where inhabits can continue their progress toward enlightenment without ever again being subject to retrogression (rebirth on earth or other lower realms). For more details, see "The Pure Land" and "The Amitabha Sutra" pages on this Web site.

  Pure Land School ... A school of Buddhism that focuses on Buddha recitation and Pure Land study. The Pure Land School was founded in China by Master Hui Yuan (334-416), the first Pure Land Patriarch, who taught that faith in the Buddha Amitabha and recitation of his name will ensure rebirth in Amitabha's Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss. Shakyamuni Buddha put special stress upon the Pure Land method in many Sutras. See also "Pure Land."

  Pure Land Study ... The study of the Pure Land form of Buddhism.

  Pure Mind ... In Pure Land Study, the attainment of mental purity through Buddha recitation.

  Pusa ... The Chinese word for Bodhisattva..

  Rahula ... He was one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni. He was the first in esoteric practices and in desire for instruction in the Law. He was also the son of Shakyamuni.

  Rajagaha ... Rajagaha in Pali, Rajagrha in Sanskrit. The capital of the ancient kingdom of Magadha in India, which was the centres of culture at the time of Shakyamuni. The first Bodhi mandala of Buddhism called Bamboo Grove Park was built by the elder Kalanda and King Bimblisara of Magadha in Rajagaha.

  Raksa ... Living in the Ghost Path. Like Yaksa, they are evil and violent, but inferior to Yaksa.

  Realm of Form ... See Three Realms... Realm of Formlessness ... See Three Realms... Realm of Sensuous Desire ... See Three Realms.

  Recognition ... Or Conception or Thinking. The Sanskirt word is Sanjna. It is the function of mind. It may lead to desire. One of the Five Skandhas.

  Renunciation ... One of the Four Unlimited Mind. As one of the chief Buddhist virtues, renunciation leads to a state of "undifferent without pleasure or pain". It is also an equality in mind with no distinction of self and others.

  Right Action ... The fourth of the Eightfold Path; respect for life (do not kill), property (do not steal) and personal relationship (no sexual misconduct) so as to purify one's mind and body... Right Concentration ... Right abstraction, the eighth of the Eightfold Path; meditation, focusing the mind without distraction, preparing the mind to attain wisdom... Right Effort ... Right zeal or progress, unintermitting perseverance, suppressing the rising of evil states and stimulating good states, and to perfect those which have come to beings... Right Livelihood ... The fifth of the Eightfold Path; right life, abstaining from any of the forbidden modes of living. Five kinds of livelihood are discouraged : trading in animals for slaughter, dealing in weapons, dealing in slaves, dealing in poison and dealing in intoxicants... Right Remembrance ... Right memory, right mindfulness; the seventh of the Eightfold Path, avoiding distracted and clouded state of mind, awareness and self-possessed... Right Speech ... The third of Eightfold Path, abstaining from lying, slander/back biting, abuse/harsh words and idle talk... Right Thought ... Right thought and intent; avoiding desire and ill-will; the second of the Eightfold Path... Right Understanding ... See Right View... Right View ... Understanding the Four Noble Truths; the first of the Eightfold Path...

  Rupa ... See Matter or Five Skandhas.

  Raging skandas ... See "five skandas."

  Rakshasa ... A fearsome ghost.

  Realm of Reality ... See "Dharma Realm." Realm of Truth ... See "Dharma Realm."

  Reckoning ... " not . . . one part by reckoning, one part by calculation, one part that can be demonstrated by comparison, or one part in an Upanishad ." (Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40.) No matter how you figure or calculate it, a very small number.

  Refuge, Taking ... See "Triple Jewels."

  Retrogression ... Rebirth on earth or other lower realms during the cycle of birth and death. Rebirth in the Pure Land ends the cycle of birth and death; Pure Land inhabitants, freed from the cycle of birth and death, are said to be beyond retrogression.

  Reward body ... See "Three Bodies of the Buddha ."

  Roots ... The kind of accumulated karma that an individual has at birth. Persons whose accumulated karma is good are said to have "good roots."

  Saddharmapundarika Sutra ... The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra in Sanskrit. "Sad" means wonderful, and "Pundarika" means white lotus flower.

  Sagely Wheel-turning King ... He is referred to a Buddha as universal spiritual king with all kinds of good marks and appearance, or a god over a universe, or a preacher of the supreme doctrine. The wheel is probably a symbol of the sun with its myraid rays.

  Saha Land ... Also called the Saha World. It refers to the land on Earth. Saha interprets as bearing and enduring. Saha Land is contrary to Pure Land. It is a place of good and evil. A universe where all are subjected to transmigration and in which a Buddha transforms.

  Sakrdagamin ... A Sanskrit word means one who returns once. It is the certification of the second fruit of Arhatship. Being a Sakrdagamin, he returns once - once to heaven and once among men before he cuts off the last three categories of his delusions in thought in the Desire Realm.

  Samadhi ... Sanskrit word for meditation. See Meditation and Contemplation

  Samana ... A Pali word, Sramana in Sanskrit. One who practices austerities; an ascetic.

  Samantabhadra Bodhisattva ... Also called Visvabhadra Bodhisattva, Universally Worthy Bodhisattva. Being one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas, he is the Bodhisattva of Great Conduct, representing the Law. He has Ten Great King Vows, which are the guidelines in practising Buddhism, and cultivating the Buddhist Way.

  Samhita ... One of four types of Vedic literature in ancient India. It consists of four sections, including poems, songs, rituals, mandra, etc... 1.Rg-veda - life & health; 2.Sama-veda - ritual & worship; 3.Yajur-veda - war study; 4.Atharva-veda - mandra & poems... The four is know as Four Vedas.

  Sammatiyah ... One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah. It is a school of correct measures, or correct evaluation, formed about 300 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. It was classified in the Pudgalavadin category, thus often linked with Vatsiputriyah.

  Samsara ... Sanskrit word meaning turning of the wheel or revolving. It refers to the ransmigration in the Six Directions of Reincarnation, the realm of birth and death.

  Samskara ... See Volition or Five Skandhas.

  Sangha ... The Buddhist monastic order. The corporate assembly of at least 3 monks under a chairman, empowered to hear confession, grant absolution and ordain. In general terms, it refers to any community practising the Buddhist Way.

  Sanjna ... See Recognition or Five Skandhas... Sankrantivada ... See Sautrantika.

  Sannagarikah ... One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah.

  Sanskrit ... Brahma letters. The classical Aryan language of ancient India, systematized by scholars. With the exception of a few ancient translations probably from Pali versions, most of the original texts in Buddhism used in China were Sanskrit.

  Sariputra ... Sariputra in Sanskrit, Sariputta in Pali. He was born in a Brahman family near Rajagaha. At the age of 17, he mastered all Vedic doctrines. In seeking a good teacher, he studied under one of the six great non-Buddhist teachers called Sanjaya. He met Shakyamuni with the aid of Assaji, one of the Five Bhiksus. He then became one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni, noted for his wisdom and learning. He was also the right-hand attendant on Shakyamuni. He died before Shakyamuni entered Nirvana. He figures prominently in certain sutras. He is represented as standing with Maudgalyayana by the Buddha when entering Nirvana. He is to reappear as Padmaprabha Buddha.

  Sarvastivadah ... One of the early Hinayana sects, said to be formed about 200-300 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. A branch of the Vaibhasika claiming Rahula as founder. A school of reality of all phenomena asserting the doctrine that all things are real... The subdivision of Sarvastivadah was complicated and doubtful. In the list of the Eighteen Sects of Hinayana, the Sarvastivadah was not taken into account to be one sect, as it split into all the remaining sects... Also known as Hetavadinah.

  Satyasiddhi School ... One of the Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism. Founded on the Satyasiddhi Shastra by Harivarman... Satyasiddhi Shastra ... Written by Harivarman and translated by Kumarajiva, on which the Satyasiddhi Sect bases its doctrine. It was a Hinayana variation of the Sunya (emptiness) doctrine. The term is defined as perfectly establishing the real meaning of the Sutras.

  Sautrantika ... Sutravada in Sanskrit, Suttavada in Pali. Libereally means reliance upon sutras, the original Buddhist texts, therefore emphasized the efficacy and authority of the sutras. Also called Sankrantivada as it held the view that the Skandhas transmigrate from the former world to the later world. It is one of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthaviradin developed from Sarvastivadah. Vasubandhu's arguments in the Abhidharmakosa criticize the Vaibhasikas from a Sautrantika viewpoint. The ideas influenced Mahayana doctrines to form Yogacara school.

  Savatthi ... Savatthi in Pali, Sravasti in Sanskrit. The capital of the ancient Kingdom of Kosala, where the famous monastery (Bodhimandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.

  Sensation ... Or Feeling. The Sanskrit word is Vedana. One of the Five Skandhas. See Five Skandhas.

  Seven Gems ... They are gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, mother-of-pearl, red pearls and carnelian.

  Seven Title Classification ... Sutra titles fall into seven classes accordingly to their reference to person, Dharma and analogy... A.Three Single... 1.Solely by reference to people e.g. the Amitabha Sutra 2.Solely by reference to Dharma e.g. the Mahaparinirvana Sutra 3.Solely by analogy e.g. The Brahma Net Sutra... B.Three Paired... 4.By reference to a person and a Dharma e.g. The Sutra of the Questions of Manjushri 5.By reference to a person and an analogy e.g. The Sutra of the Lion's Roar of the Thus Come One 6.By reference to a Dharma and an analogy. e.g. The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra... C.Three-in-one... 7.By reference to person, Dharma and analogy together e.g. The Great Universal Buddha Flower Adornment Sutra

  Shakya ... Sakiya in Pali and Sakya in Sanskrit. The tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged.

  Shakyamuni ... Sakayamuni in Sanskrit, Shakyamuni in Pali. The founder of Buddhism. He was born as the Prince of Sakyans, and was called Siddhartha Goutama. At the age of 35, he attained the supreme Enlightenment and became the Buddha and was the called Shakyamuni. The word means "capability and kindness".

  Shatika Shastra ... One of the Three Shastra of Madhyamika School, so called because of its 100 verses, each of 32 words. It was written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu and translated by Kumarajiva, but the versions differ.

  Siddhartha .. Siddhartha in Sanskrit, Siddhattha in Pali. The given name of Shakyamuni when he was born to the Prince Suddhodana. The name means "wish fulfilled".

  Singalovada Sutra ... A short sutra about ethics and morality.

  Six Directions of Reincarnation ... (1) Naraka, i.e. Hell (2) Presta, i.e. Hungry Ghost (3) Tiryagyoni, i.e. Animal (4) Asura, i.e. Malevolent nature spirits (5) Manusya, i.e. Human Existence (6) Deva, i.e. Heavenly Existence

  Six Dusts ... See Six Gunas... Six Entrances ... see Six Places and Six Indriyas... Six External Bases ... See Six Gunas... Six Fields of Senses ... See Six Gunas.

  Six Fulfilment ... The six requirements indicating that the Sutra is a true record of teachings given directly by the Buddha. They are the fulfilment of meeting the requirement... 1.on belief 2.on hearing 3.on time 4.on of the host 5.on place 6.on audiences

  Six Gunas ... Or Six External Bases, or Six Dusts. They are sight, sound, scent/smell, taste, tangibles/touch and dharma/idea. They are the qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense.

  Six Heavens of Desire ... See Three Realms... Six Indriyas ... Or Six Internal Bases, or Six Sense-organs, or Six Places. They are eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind... Six Internal Bases ... See Six Indriyas... Six Paramita ... See Paramita... Six Paths ... See Six Directions of Reincarnation... Six Periods of Day and Night ... Six periods in a day, three for day and three for night, i.e. morning, noon, evening, night, midnight, dawn... Six Places ... Sanskrit word is Sadayatana. See Six Indriyas.

  Six Psychic Power ... (1) the phychic power of the heavenly eye (2) the psychic power of the heavenly ear (3) phychic power with regard to post lives (4) phychic power with regard to the minds (5) the spiritually based psychic powers (6) the psychic power of the extinction of outflows

  Six Roots ... Or Six Sense-organs, see Six Indriyas... Six Sense-organs ... See Six Indriyas... Six States of Existence ... See Six Directions of Reincarnation... Sixteen Contemplations ... See Vipasyana Sukhavativyha Sutra.

  Sixteen Hearts ... There are eight hearts within the Desire Realm: 1.Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Suffering 2.Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Suffering 3.Patience regarding the Dharma involving in Acculumation 4.Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Acculumation 5.Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Extinction 6.Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Extinction 7.Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Way 8.Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Way... Note that the Truths of Suffering, Acculumation, Extinction and Way are the Four Noble Truths, which is the fundamental doctrine in Buddhism, particularly Hinayana.... There are the other eight hearts within the Form Realm and the Formless Realm: 1.Subsequent Patience regarding Suffering 2.Subsequent Wisdom regarding Suffering 3.Subsequent Patience regarding Acculumation 4.Subsequent Wisdom regarding Acculumation 5.Subsequent Patience regarding Extinction 6.Subsequent Wisdom regarding Extinction 7.Subsequent Patience regarding Way 8.Subsequent Wisdom regarding Way

  Sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception ... The highest of the four heavens in the Realm of Formlessness, or called the sphere of no-thing... Sphere of no-thing ... The heavens without form, immaterial, consisting only of the mind in contemplation, being four in number of which the "sphere of neither-perception-nor-nonperception" is the highest.

  Spiritual Ghost ... Living in the Ghost Path. They are kind dwelling in the nature, e.g. trees, mountain and sea protecting the creatures.

  Sramanera ... Literally, it means the one who ceases from evil and does works of mercy or lives altruistically. He is a devoted and zealous man who has taken a vow to obey the ten commandments in Buddhist orders: 1.not to kill. 2.not to steal. 3.not to lie or speak evil. 4.not to have sexual misconduct. 5.not to use perfumes or decorate oneself with flowers. 6.not to occupy high beds. 7.not to sing or dance. 8.not to possess wealth. 9.not to eat out of regulation hours. 10.not to drink wine.

  Sramaneraka ... Sramenera in female gender obeying the ten commandments of Sramanera too.

  Sravaka ... The first or initial stage in Hinayana, the second being that of Praetyka-Buddha. Sravaka, a Sanskrit word, means a hearer. It generally relates to Hinayana disciple who understands the Four Noble Truth in entering Nirvana.

  Srotaapanna ... A Sanskrit word means one who has entered the flow, Sota-panna in Pali. He opposes the flow of common people's six dusts and enters the flow of the Sage's Dharma-nature... It is the certification of the first fruit of Arhatship, which is within the Hinayana (small vehicle). It comes when the eighty-eight categories of delusions of view are smashed and cut off by means of sixteen hearts. It is called a Way of Liberation, for at that point, delusion is completely severed and liberation is obtained. One who has certified to Srotaapanna has seven more births and deaths to undergo. He will be born seven times in the heavens and seven times among men.

  Sruti ... The bibles of Brahmans, which are absolute truths originated from holy gods. They dictated the philosophical and religious thoughts in ancient India.

  Sthavirah ... Also known as Sthaviranikaya or Aryasthavirah. Sthavirah and Mahasanghikah are the two earliest sects in Buddhism. At first, they were not considered to be different. Sthavirah merely represented the intimate and older disciples of Shakyamuni, while Mahasanghika being the rest. It is said that a century later, a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions were named as a result (all in Ceylon): 1.Mahaviharavasinah 2.Jetavaniyah 3.Abhayagiri-vasinah... In the course, the eighteen Hinayana sects were developed... From the time of Ashoka, four principal school are regarded as prevailing: 1.Mahasanghika 2.Sthavira 3.Mulasarvastivada 4.Sammatiyah... As far as Sthavira is concerned, there are eleven sects reckoned... The Sthaviravadins were reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agonostic system to a realist philosophy.

  Sthaviranikaya ... See Sthavirah.

  Stupa ... Sanskrit word means burial mound, which contains the ashes or relics of an enlightened being. In China, it appears as pagoda, representing the place where Buddha "lives".

  Subhadra ... Subhadra in Sanskrit, Subhadda in Pali. A Brahman of age 120, who became Shakyamuni's disciple shortly before Shakyamuni's death and is therefore known as the last disciple.

  Sudatta ... See Anathapindika.

  Sudden Enlightenment ... Enlightened all of a sudden by hearing or studying Dharma, usually for those who practices Ch'an.

  Suddhodana ... Pure Rice Prince, the father of Shakyamuni, ruled over the Sakyans at Kapilaratthu on the Nepalese border.

  Sudra ... Sudra in Sanskrit, Sudda in Pali. The lowest of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were peasants, slaves and serfs.

  Sukhavativyuha Sutra ... It is one of the main Sutras for Pure Land Sect. It stipulates the Forty-eight Vows of Amitabha Buddha, which give rise to the characteristic of the Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss in the West.

  Sumeru ... Sanskrit words. It means wonderful high mountain. It is composed of gold. silver, lapis lazuli and crystal, therefore it is so wonderful. It is eighty four thousand Yugamdhara high and eighty found thousand Yugamdhara wide, which is the greatest mountain amongst all.

  Sutra ... Sutra in Sanskrit, Sutta in Pali. It is a "path" necessarily passed through in the cultivation of the Way.

  Saha ... (Sanskrit) Suffering... Saha world ... This world; world of suffering. (See " saha.")

  Samantabhadra ... Sanskrit name for Universal Worthy Bodhisattva. Samanta means "general or universal;" bhadra means "sage;" and Samantabhadra, which is derived from these words, means "the principle of universal love or compassion." Samantabhadra is also referred to as the Bodhisattva of Great Activity. See "Universal Worthy Bodhisattva."

  Samsara ... Cycle of birth and death; realms of Birth and Death.

  San Gui ... The Triple Jewels; the ceremony of taking refuge in the Triple Jewels. The San Gui ceremony is described in detail on the page titled "Taking Refuge in the Triple Jewels."

  Sanskrit ... An ancient classical Indian languages in which many Buddhist and Hindu scriptures are written. The earliest Buddhist books were written in Prakrit; later translated into Pali; and still later translated into Sanskrit. Most Chinese, Japanese, and Tibetan Buddhist scriptures are translated from Sanskrit.

  Sariputra ... Major disciple of Shakyamuni Buddha, foremost in wisdom among Arhats.

  Sarasvati ... (Sanskrit) The Goddess of Letters and Eloquence.

  Seven treasures ... Gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, agate, red pearl, and carnelian. They represent the seven powers of faith, perseverance, "shame," avoidance of wrongdoing, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom.

  Shan Dao ... Shan Tao (613-81) was one of the first patriarchs of the Pure Land school.

  Sharira ... Solid relics found in the cremated remains of Buddhas or saints after they leave this world and move on to the Buddha-realms. Sharira that have the forms of pearls and precious jewels are often found in the material remains of Buddhas. Sharira that are left behind in the bodies of lesser beings often resemble white or colored pieces of coral.

  Shorter Amitabha Sutra ... See Amitabha Sutra.

  Shurangama Sutra ... The Sutra that gives the most detailed explanation of the Buddha's teachings regarding the mind. It includes an analysis of where the mind is located, an explanation of the origin of the cosmos, a discussion of the specific workings of karma , a description of all the realms of existence, and an exposition on fifty kinds of deviant samadhi-concentrations that can delude us in our search for awakening. Also, in a chapter of particular importance to Pure Land practitioners, twenty-five enlightened beings explain the methods they used to become enlightened. One of those beings is Great Strength Bodhisattva (Chinese: Da Shi Zhi), who tells how attained enlightenment using Buddha recitation. This section of the Sutra, titled "The Foremost Attainment of Great Strength Bodhisattva through Buddha Recitation," is presented in "The Enlightenment of Great Strength Bodhisattva ."

  Six directions ... North, south, east, west, above and below; i.e., all directions. In the Flower Adornment Sutra, the six directions are expanded to include the points of the compass that lie between the major directions, (northeast, southwest, etc.) and are referred to as the ten directions

  Six dusts ... See "dusts." Six paramitas ... See "paramitas." Six paths ... See "six states of existence."

  Six states of existence ... The six states in which beings live within the realm of birth and death. Within these states, the lowest three are called the three evil paths, or three bad states. They are the states of (1) people in hells, (2) hungry ghosts, and (3) animals. Above these three states are the states of (4) humans, (5) Asuras, and (6) devas.

  Six Principles of Living in Harmony ... The principles of (1) purity, (2) equality, (3) honesty, (4) freedom, (5) compassion, and (6) true happiness. Taking refuge in the Triple Jewels helps us live by these principles by restoring the complete wisdom and abilities of our self-nature.

  Six senses ... In Buddhism, the five senses plus mind... Six sense organs ... The five sense organs plus the mind.

  Sound-hearers ... (Sanskrit: Sravakas). One of the four grades of disciples in the Small Vehicle school. Sound-hearers attain liberation through a meritorious life but lack the intellectual power of the Pratyeka-Buddhas or the active compassion of the Bodhisattvas.

  Small Vehicle ... A term used to describe Hinayana Buddhism, which is said to "carry" fewer people to Buddhahood than Mahayana "Great Vehicle" teachings can because -- as Master Chin Kung puts it -- Small Vehicle teachings "solely stress self-realization." For more details, see "Great Vehicle."

  Sudhana ... Kumera Sudhana, also known as "Good Wealth" or "The Celestial Youth of the Treasure of Merit," consecrated his life to the attainment of Buddhahood and visited 53 saints in pursuit of that goal. Finally, he met Universal Worthy Bodhisattva (Sanskrit: Samantabhadra), who advised him to follow Ten Great Practices and to make Ten Great Vows in order to be reborn in the Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss. Sudhana's story is related in "The Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40." See also "Good Wealth."

  Sukhavati ... Sanskrit name for the Western Pure Land, or Land of Ultimate Bliss.

  Sukhavati-Vyuha ... See "Amitabha Sutra."

  Sumeru ... A mountain of inconceivable height.

  Sutra ... Buddhist scripture... Sutra of the Heroic One ... See "Shurangama Sutra." Sutra on Observing Amitabha (and His Pure Land) ... See "Contemplation Sutra ." Sutra on Visualizing Amitabha (and His Pure Land) See "Contemplation Sutra."

  Taking Precepts ... see Morality.

  Tantrayana ... Also called Vajrayana. A school of esoteric Tibetan Buddhism. It emphsizes not only meditation but also the use of symbolic rites, gestures, postures, breathing, incantation, and other secret means.

  Ten Dharma Realms ... also known as ten states of existence, which are: 1.Hell 2.Ghost 3.Animal 4.Asura 5.Man 6.Deva 7.Sravaka (Sound-Hearer Arhat) 8.Praetyka-Buddha 9.Bodhisattva 10.Buddha... Each Dharma realm has its own characteristics, and its existence is attributed to the retribution of the beings. The lowest six realms (1-6) are known as the Six Paths or Six Realms. These six states of existence are subjected to birth and death,and then rebirth for many lives. The upper four realms are known as the Four Holy Realms. These four states of existence are beyond birth and death and liberated from the Samsara

  Ten Directions ... The eight points of the compass, in addition to the nadir and the zenith.


  Ten Good Deeds ... The Ten Forms of Good Actions for layman, or Ten Wholesomeness. 1.No killing 2.No stealing 3.No adultery 4.No lying 5.No slandering 6.No harsh speech 7.No idle talks 8.No greed 9.No hatred 10.No illusion... It is essential for the rebirth in Deva realm.

  Ten Great Disciples of Skakyamuni Buddha ... They are: 1.Mahakasyapa in Sanskrit, Mahakassapa in Pali. first in ascetism. 2.Ananda first in having heard the words of Buddha. 3.Sariputra in Sanskrit, Sariputta in Pali. first in wisdom. 4.Subhuti first in expressing emptiness. 5.Purna first in explaining good law. 6.Maudgalyayana in Sanskrit, Moggallana in Pali. first in supernatural power. 7.Katyayana first in preaching. 8.Aniruddha in Sanskrit, Anuruddha in Pali. first in the sharpness of his divine eyes. 9.Upali first in taking precepts. 10.Rahula first in esoteric practices and in desire for instruction in the law.

  Ten Great King Vows ... The vows of Visvabhadra Bodhisattva: 1.To worship and respect all Buddhas. 2.To praise the Thus Come One. 3.To practise offerings. 4.To repent all karmic hindrance. 5.To rejoice and follow merits and virtue. 6.To request that the Dharma wheel be turned. 7.To request that the Buddha remain in the world. 8.To follow the Buddha's teachings. 9.To live in accord with all living beings. 10.To spread all merits and virtue.

  Ten Meritorious Deeds ... The Ten Meritorious Deeds allow people to gain a happy and peaceful life as well as to develop knowledge and understanding. They are: 1.Charity 2.Morality / Taking Precepts 3.Mental cultivation / Meditation 4.Reverence or respect 5.Services in helping others 6.Transference of merits 7.Rejoicing in the merits of others 8.Preaching and teaching Dharma 9.Listening the Dharma 10.Straightening one's own views

  Ten Offerings ... For the material there are ten kinds of offerings in Buddhism: 1.incense 2.flower 3.lamp 4.necklace 5.jeweled parasols 6.banners and canopies 7.clothes 8.fruit and food 9.music 10.joined palms

  Ten Paramita ... see Paramita.

  Ten Powers ... The Ten Powers of Buddha or Bodhisattva are the complete knowledge of: 1.what is right or wrong in every condition 2.what is the karma of every being, past, present and future 3.all stages of dhyana liberation and samadhi 4.the powers and faculties of all beings 5.the desires or moral directions of every being 6.the actual condition of every individual 7.the direction and consequence of all laws 8.all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality 9.the end of all beings and Nirvana 10.the destruction of all illusion of every kind

  Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism ... 1.Kosa 2.Satyasiddhi 3.Madhyamika 4.Tien Tai 5.Hua Yen 6.Dharmalaksana 7.Vinaya 8.Chan 9.Esoteric 10.Pure Land

  Ten Stages of Bodhisattva ... These are the ten stages of development of Bodhisattva depending on their merits and virtues: 1.Pramudita (joy) - job at having overcome the difficulties and sufferings, now entering on the path to Buddhahood 2.Vimala (purity) - freedom from all possible defilement 3.Prabhakari (enlightenment) - stage of further enlightenment 4.Arcismati (widsom) - stage of glowing wisdom 5.Sudurjaya (no difficulty) - stage of mastering the utmost difficulties 6.Abhimukhi (open way) - the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity 7.Duramgama (proceeding afar) - getting above ideas of self in order to save others 8.Acala (unperturbed) - attainment of being unperturbed 9.Sadhumati (discriminatory wisdom) - the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessing the Ten Powers 10.Dharma megha (law cloud) - attainment of the fertilizing powers of law cloud

  Ten Titles of Buddha ... represent the characteristics of Buddha... 1.Tathagata - the Thus Come Ones 2.Arhat - worthy of offerings 3.Samyak-sambuddha - of proper and universal knowledge 4.Vidyacarna-sampauna - perfect in understanding and conduct 5.Sugata - skilful in leaving the world through liberation 6.Lokavid - perfect and complete understanding of all worldly Dharma 7.Anuttara - unsurpassed knights 8.Purusa-damya-sarathi - taming heroes 9.Sasta deramanusyanam - teachers of gods and people 10.Buddha-lokanatha or Bhagaran - Buddha, the World Honored Ones

  Ten Vehicles of Meditation ... Vehicles is the means to take living beings across from suffering to Nirvana. Though there are ten vehicles, there is only one teaching (Dharma), i.e., Inconceivable Virtues of the Self-mind, and the other nine are supplementary. According to Tien Tai Sect, the ten vehicles are: 1.Meditation of Inconceivable Virtue of the Self-mind - highest order for superior roots 2.Meditation of Real Bodhicitta 3.Meditation of Expedient Dwelling of Mind 4.Meditation of Breaking Universal Dharma 5.Meditation of Penetrating through Obstructed Consciousness 6.Meditation of Commissioning all Chapters of Paths 7.Meditation of Confronting Delusion and Advocating Enlightenment 8.Meditation of Understanding the Stages of Fruition 9.Meditation of Calmness and Endurance 10.Meditation of Non-attachment of Dharma

  Ten Wholesomeness ... see Ten Good Deeds.

  Theravada ... Thera, an elder; a fully ordained monk who has past ten rainy seasons. Theravada is the doctrine of the Theras, i.e. the teaching of Southern Buddhism. It is one of the traditional 18 sects of Hinayana Buddhism. This form of Buddhism emerged out of Mahinda's mission to Sri Lanka (Ceylon) during Ashoka's region. They are apparently very closely related to the orthodox Vibhajyavada doctrine of Ashoka's time and represent the sole remaining Hinayanist sect today... It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in S.E. Asian countries, e.g. Thailand, Sri Lanka, etc. (see Mahayana).

  Thirty-two Forms ... These are the physical marks of a Buddha: 1.Level feet 2.thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet 3.long slender fingers 4.pliant hands and feet 5.toes and fingers finely webbed 6.full-sized heels 7.arched insteps 8.thigh like a royal stag 9.hands reaching below the knees 10.well-retracted male organ 11.height and stretch of arms equal 12.every hair-root dark coloured 13.body hair graceful and curly 14.golden-hued body 15.a ten-foot halo around him 16.soft smooth skin 17.two soles, two palms, two shoulders and crown well rounded 18.below the armpits well-filled 19.lion-shaped body 20.erect 21.full shoulders 22.forty teeth 23.teeth white even and close 24.the four canine teeth pure white 25.lion-jawed 26.salvia improving the taste of all food 27.tongue long and broad 28.voice deep and resonant 29.eye deep blue 30.eye lashes like a royal bull 31.a white urna or curl between the eyebrows emitting light 32.an usnisa or fleshy protuberance on the crown.

  Three Classifications ... Buddha shows that a person is nothing more than a combination of various elements which come together under suitable conditions. They are: 1.the Five Skandhas 2.the Twelve Bases 3.the Eighteen Fields

  Three Delusions ... In Tien Tai, three doubts in the mind of Bodhisattva, producing three delusions, i.e., 1.through things seen and thought 2.through the immense variety of duties in saving humans 3.through ignorance

  Three Dogmas ... They are the Dogma of Void, Unreal and Mean. See also Three Meditations of One Mind.

  Three Enlightenments ... the three kinds of Enlightenment: 1.Enlightenment for self 2.Enlightenment for others 3.Perfect enlightenment and accomplishment The first is Arhat. The second is Bodhisattva. When all the three have been attained, the being becomes a Buddha.

  Three Evil Paths ... They are the three lowest realms of the Nine Realms: hell, hungry ghost and animal.

  Three Good Paths ... They are Man, Asura and Deva Paths.

  Three Jewels ... Or the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha, which are the three essential components of Buddhism. They are the objects of veneration. Buddhists take refuge in them by pronouncing the threefold refuge formula,thus acknowledging themselves to be Buddhists.

  Three Meditations of One Mind ... Also known as Three Inconceivable Meditations, which is one of the practices in Tien Tai Sect in China. According to Tien Tai, all existence in the universe consists of Three Dogmas (Truths), namely, Void, Unreal and Mean. These three Dogmas are co-existent and interactive, integrated and interrelated. If one can meditate this concept with the whole mind, it is call Three Meditations of One mind, or Inconceivable Profound Meditation.

  Three Obstacles ... See Three Obstructions.

  Three Obstructions ... Also called Three Obstacles. They are the obstructions that hinder the attainment of Buddhahood. When the Three Obstructions are cleared, the Three Virtues will be perfected. The Three Obstructions are: 1.Affliction obstruction - e.g. due to Three Poisons, i.e. greed, hatred and stupidity. 2.Karma obstruction - e.g. due to Five Offenses, and Ten Unwholesome Deeds, i.e. the Karma in the past. 3.Retribution obstruction - e.g. the suffering retribution in Three Evil Paths.

  Three Periods of Time ... That is the past, the present and the future.

  Three Poisons ... or Three Roots... 1.Greed or wrong desire 2.Hatred or anger 3.Illusion or stupidity or ignorance These are the source of all the passions and delusions.

  Three Realms ... Sanskrit word is Triloka. It is Buddhist metaphysical equivalence for the triple world of earth, atmosphere and heaven... 1.Realm of Sensusous Desire (Sanskrit word is Kamadhatu) of sex and food. It includes the Six Heavens of Desire, the Human World and the Hells. 2.Realm of Form (Sanskrit word is Rupaadhatu) of matter which is substantial and resistant. It is a semi-material conception. It is above the lust world and contains bodies, places and things, all mystic and wonderful. It consists of 18 heavens, including the Heavens of Four Zen (Sanskrit word is Brahmalokas). 3.Realm of Formlessness (Sanskrit word is Arupadhatu) of pure spirit, where there are no bodies and matters to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is conceived of in Four Stages/Places of Emptiness in the immaterial world. It has four heavens, in which the Sphere/heaven of neither-perception-nor-non-perception is the highest.

  Three Roots ... The three (evil) roots, i.e. desire, hate and stupidity. Another group is the three grades of good "roots" or abilities, i.e. superior, medium and inferior.

  Three Seals ... Also known as Three Universal Truths. 1.All phenomena are impermanent. 2.All Dharma are not-self. 3.The eternity is Nirvana... It is called the seal because it is to certify whether it is the Buddha's teaching or not. Also see Four Seals.

  Three Shastra ... They are: 1.Madhyamaka Shastra 2.Dvadashamukha Shastra 3.Shatika Shastra... All three were translated by Kumarajiva, on which the Three Shastra Sect bases its doctrines.

  Three Studies ... or Three Vehicles of Learning... 1.Sila, i.e. taking Precepts 2.Dhyana, i.e. concentration and meditation 3.Prajna, i.e. wisdom It is practiced by the Arhats.

  Three Sufferings ... 1.Feeling of suffering 2.Feeling of happiness - suffering of decay 3.Feeling of neither suffering nor happiness - suffering of the activity of the Five Skandhas.

  Three Universal Characteristics ... The Three Universal Characteristics are connected with the existence. They are: 1.All phenomena are impermanent. 2.All Dharma are not-self. 3.All sensations are suffering.

  Three Universal Truths ... Also known as the Three Seals. Three Universal Truths are the basic teaching of Buddha, so that they are commonly used to attest Buddhism.

  The Three Universal Truths are: 1.All phenomena are impermanent, (i.e., Anicca in Sanskrit). 2.All dharmas are non-self, (i.e., Anatta in Sanskrit). 3.The eternity is Nirvana and stillness.

  Three Vehicles ... They are the Two Vehicles, plus the Bodhisattva Vehicle, i.e. the Vehicles for Sravaka, Pratyeka Buddha, and the Bodhisattva are called the Three Vehicles.

  Three Virtues ... The three virtues of power, 1.the virtue, or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, i.e., the Dharmakaya 2.the virtue of his Prajna, knowing all things in their reality 3.the virtue of his freedom from all attachments and his sovereign liberty

  Three Wisdom ... There are three kinds of wisdom: 1.Sravaka and Praetyka-Buddha knowledge that all the Dharmas or laws are void and unreal 2.Bodhisattva knowledge of all things in proper discrimination 3.Buddha knowledge or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present and future... In Tien Tai Sect of China, the Three Wisdom is associated with the Three Dogmas of Void, Unreal and Mean.

  Threefold Body of a Buddha ... They are: 1.Dharma body, i.e. Dharmakaya - its own essential nature, common to all Buddhas. 2.Retribution body, i.e. Sambhogakaya - a body of bliss, which he receives for his own use and enjoyment. 3.Response and transformation body, i.e. Nirmanatkaya - he can appear in any form whenever and wherever necessary for the sake of crossing over others.

  Tien Tai Sect ... One of the Ten Great Sect in Chinese Buddhism. It was initiated by Hui Man in the dynasty of Bei-Chai, and was promoted by Chi-Hai in Tsui Dynasty. Mainly based on Lotus Sutra, Tien Tai Sect explains all universal phenomena with Three Dogmas. For the practices, it emphasizes cutting off Three Delusions, thus establishes the method of Three Meditations of One Mind.

  Triloka ... see Three Realms.

  Trinity of Western Paradise ... They are the Buddhas and the Great Bodhisattvas in Western Paradise (Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss): 1.Amitabha 2.Avalokitesvara (Kuan Yin) 3.Mahasthamaprapta

  Tripitaka ... Tripitaka in Sanskrit, Tipitaka in Pali. The three parts of Pali canon, consisting of: 1.Sutra-Pitika (Sanskrit) or Sutta-Pitaka (Pali), or the Sutra Basket - containing the entire , the sermons attributed to the Shakyamuni Buddha. 2.Vinaya-Pitika (both Sanskrit and Pali), or the Ordinance Basket - containing the rules of monastic life. 3.Abhidharma-Pitika (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma-Pitaka (Pali), or Shastras, or the Treatise Basket - containing the doctrinal commentaries, philosophical and technical works, such as discourses, discussions, or treatises on the dogma, doctrines, etc.

  True Suchness ... Bhutatathata in Sanskrit word. Bhuta means substance that exists; tathata means suchness, thusness, i.e. such is its nature. It is regarded as the absolute, ultimate source and character of all phenomena. It is the eternal, imperson, unchangeable reality behind all phenomena. Simply speaking, it is ALL... There are many other terms to describe it, e.g. Buddha-nature, Self-nature Pure Mind, Dharmakaya (Dharma Body), Tathagata-garbha (Buddha-treasury), Reality (real mark), Dharma Realm, Dharma Nature, the Complete and Perfect real nature, etc.

  Tusita Heaven ... The fourth devaloka in the Realm of Desire. Its inner department is the Pure Land of Maitreya who like Shakyamuni and all Buddhas, is reborn there before descending to earth as the next Buddha in our world.

  Twelve Bases ... The Six Internal Bases and the Six External Bases are together called the Twelve Bases. Base implies the meaning of germinating and nourishing. All mental activities are germinated and nourished from these Twelve Bases.

  Twelve Links of Dependent Origination ... see the Law of Dependent Origination.

  Twelve Nidanas ... see the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination.

  Twelve Places ... see the Twelve Bases.

  Twenty Sects of Hinayana ... See the Eighteen Sects of Hinayana, plus the two originals, i.e. Mahasanghikah and Sthavirah called the Twenty Sects of Hinayana.

  Two Deaths ... Two Deaths refer to 1.share-sectioned birth and death 2.changed birth and death

  Two Forms of Death ... 1.Natural death of the life 2.Death form external cause and conditions

  Two Obstacles ... Two Obstacles refer to: 1.the obstacle of afflictions 2.the obstacle of what is known

  Two Sects of Hinayana ... It refers to the Sthaviravadin and Mahasanghika.

  Two Vehicles ... Two Vehicles generally refer to Sravaka and Praetykabuddha.

  Tathagata ... (English: Thus Come One . Chinese: ru lai []) A word used to refer to Buddhas -- either Shakyamuni Buddha or the Buddhas in general.. Tathagata is a Sanskrit word that means "one who has attained full realization of 'such-ness'" -- that is, one who has become one with the absolute "Body of Law" (Dharma-Kaya) in such a way that he or she neither "comes from anywhere" (na-agamana) nor "goes to anywhere" ( na-gaman).

  Ten directions ... The ten directions, or ten quarters, are: north, south, east, west, north-east, south-east, north-west, south-west, the nadir, and the zenith. See also "six directions."

  Ten Esoteric Doors ... See " Ten Mysterious Gates."

  Ten evil acts ... The acts of (1) killing, (2) stealing, (3) indulging in sexual misconduct, (4) lying, (5) committing slander, (6) using coarse language, (7) indulging in empty chatter, (8) harboring covetousness, (9) using angry speech, and (10) holding wrong views. Opposite of the ten kind deeds.

  Ten evil deeds ... See "ten evil acts."

  Ten Great Vows (of Universal Worthy Bodhisattva) ... Ten vows made by Universal Worthy Bodhisattva (Samantabhadra) in the Flower Adornment Sutra. The essence of Mahayana practice is contained in these Ten Great Vows. The chapter in the Flower Adornment Sutra in which Universal Worthy Bodhisattva makes his Ten Great Vows is presented on the page titled "Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40."

  Ten Grounds ... According to the Mahayana sutras, there are a total of 52 levels of attainment before a cultivator achieves Buddhahood. The 41st to 50th levels constitute the level known as the Ten Grounds. Above these stages are the levels of Equal Enlightenment, Wonderful Enlightenment, and Buddhahood.

  Ten Kind Deeds ... (1) No killing. (2) No stealing. (3) No sexual misconduct. (4) No lying. (5) No seductive speech. (6) No speech that would cause discord and hatred. (7) No harsh speech. (8) No greed. (9) No anger or hatred. (10) Refraining from ignorance.

  Ten Mysteries ... See "Ten Mysterious Gates."

  Ten Mysterious Gates ... Ten aspects of the interrelationship of all phenomena, as seen from the enlightened point of view. To explain such relationship and harmony, the Avatamsaka (Flower Adornment) School advances the Ten Profound Propositions: (1) All things are co-existent, corresponding to one another. (2) The intension and extension of one thing involve those of others without any obstacle. (3) The One and the Many are mutually inclusive. (4) All things are identical with one another. (5) The hidden and the manifested mutually perfect each other. (6) All minute and abstruse things mutually penetrate one another. (7) All things reflect one another. (8) Truth is manifested in facts and facts are the source of enlightenment. (9) The past, present and future are inter-penetrating. (10) All things are manifestations and transformations of the mind."

  Ten Precepts ... See "Ten Kind Deeds."

  Ten Profound Propositions ... See " Ten Mysterious Gates."

  Ten quarters ... The ten directions.

  Ten Recitation Method ... A technique of Buddha recitation described in the Contemplation Sutra and presented on the Web site on the page titled "The Ten Recitation Method." It is an ideal recitation method for people who are busy with mundane activities but want to practice Buddha recitation so they can achieve rebirth in the Pure Land.

  Ten sins ... See "ten evil acts."

  Ten Stages ... See "Ten Grounds."

  Ten thousand conducts ... All the countless activities and cultivation practices of the Bodhisattvas.

  Thoroughly learned ones ... Saints who have reached the fourth and final stage of Arhatship. Persons in the first three stages of Arhatship are called "learners." See also "four grades of disciples."

  Those beyond learning ... See "thoroughly learned ones."

  Those enlightened to conditions ... See "Pratyeka-Buddhas."

  Those who are beyond study ... See "thoroughly learned ones."

  Three Bodies of the Buddha ... According to Mahayana teachings, a Buddha has three bodies: a Dharma Body (Sanskrit: Dharmakaya, the Body of Reality); (2) A Reward Body (Sanskrit: Sambhogakaya, Noumenal Body, or, Celestial Body); and (3) a Transformation Body (Sanskrti: Nirmanakaya, Phenomenal Body, Manifested Body, or Incarnate Body). In the Dharma Body , a Buddha is the personification of Suchness, Emptiness, the Truth (e.g., Vairocana Buddha). A Buddha's Reward Body is a body that is obtained as a reward of completing Bodhisattva practice and understanding the Buddha-wisdom, which is transcendent and imperceptible to common mortals (e.g., Amitabha Buddha). In the Transformation Body, a Buddha is manifested in the ordinary world of samsara (e.g., Shakyamuni Buddha).

  Three evil paths ... See "three evil realms."

  Three evil realms ... The realms of (1) people in hells, (2) hungry ghosts, and (3) animals.

  Three karmas ... Karmas accumulated as a result of actions by the body, mouth, and mind.

  Three kinds of enlightment ... There are three different kinds of enlightenment: self-enlightenment, the ability to enlighten others, and the ability to attain self-enlightenment as well as to enlighten others. See also Chapter 1 of "Understanding Buddhism."

  Three periods of time ... The past, present, and future.

  Three poisons ... Greed, anger, and ignorance.

  Three Realms ... See "Triple Realm."

  Three Sages of the World of Ultimate Bliss ... Amitabha Buddha, Guan Yin Bodhisattva, and Great Strength Bodhisattva.

  Three Studies ... Self-discipline, concentration, and wisdom.

  Three Treasures /// See "Triple Jewels."

  Thus Come One ... A name for a Buddha. Hsuan Hua explains that the world "Thus" connotes stillness, while the word "Come" connotes action. When combined, these two words connote stillness within action, or action within stillness: i.e., the Buddha. See also "Tathagata."

  Transference of merit ... The practice of transferring, or sharing, one's own merits and virtues with others. For an example of a recitation for transferring merit, see the page titled "Dedication of Merit."

  Tongue of subtle and wonderful eloquence ... The tongue of one who never tires of speaking the Buddha-dharma.

  Transformation body ... See "Three Bodies of the Buddha."

  Trikaya ... See "Three Bodies of the Buddha."

  Triple Jewels ... The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sanga. These are Sanskrit words for three good qualities we should all strive for: "Awareness and Understanding," "Right Understanding and Views," and "Purity and Harmony." Pure Land students who want to declare their intention to deepen their cultivation can participate in a ceremony called Taking Refuge in the Triple Jewels -- or, in Chinese, San Gui.

  Triple Realm ... The realms of desire (our world), form (realms of the lesser dieties), and formlessness (realms of the higher dieties). The Pure Land is outside the Triple realm, beyond samsara and retrogression.

  Triple Saints of the Flower Adornment Sutra ... The Triple Saints of the Flower Adornment (Avatamsaka) Sutra are Universal Worthy Bodhisattva; (Samantabhadra); Manjushri Bodhisattva, and the Tathagata (or Dhyani Buddha) Vairocana.

  True Dharma Realm ... The state of being in which enlightement and the object of wisdom and enlightenment are one, not two.

  Uddaka-Ramaputta ... Uddaka-ramaputta in Pali, Udraka-Ramaputra in Sanskrit. A sage under whom Shakyamuni studied meditation. The state reached by Uddaka-Ramaputta was that at which neither thought nor non-thought exists.

  Udumbara Flower ... Udumbara flower blooms once every three thousand years, so it is rare and wonderful. It is used to describe how rare the occasion is.

  Unconditioned dharma ... Also known as Asamskrta dharma, which is anything not subject to the principle of cause and effect, nor law of dependent origination, i.e. conditions. It is the dharma beyond the worldly ones.

  Upanichads ... One of the four types of Vedic literature in ancient India, which are basically Brahmanic philosophical texts. It is a sophisticated exposition of Indian philosophy and metaphysics about man and universe.

  Uruvela ... A town in Magadha where Shakyamuni attained his enlightenment and Buddhahood in the woods along Nairanjana river.

  Uttarasailah ... One of the Hinayana School, a branch of Mahasanghika. It was established in the third century, after the Nirvana, whose seat is described as north of Jetavana.

  Unconditioned merits and virtues ... Merits and virtues that do not have outflows and can therefore bring about liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

  Understanding Buddhism ... A book on basic Buddhism by the Venerable Master Chin Kung. It is currently being translated into English.

  Universal Worthy Bodhisattva ... A major Bodhisattva who personifies the transcendental practices and vows of the Buddhas (as compared to the Bodhisattva Manjushri, who represents transcendental wisdom). Often depicted seated on an elephant with six tusks representing the six paramitas. Achieved enlightenment by by doing "Ten Great Practices" and taking "Ten Great Vows," as related on the page titled "Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40."

  Universal Worthy's Conduct and Vows ... Chapter 40 of the Flower Adornment Sutra, in which Universal Worthy Bodhisattva made Ten Great Vows which contain the essence of the Mahayana. See the page titled "Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40."

  Upanishad ... (1) (Sanskrit) Dust-motes; thus, an inconceivably large number. (2) One of a set of Hindu scriptures called the Upanishads. (3) The name of a Bhodisattva who, before becoming a Bodhisattva, was plagued by an attachment to the female human form. To free himself of this attachment, Upanishad contemplated unpleasant features of dead and living human bodies, including bodies suffering the revolting effects of boils, wounds, and diseases. Once he was freed from his bondage to his to the flesh, he attained enlightenment. Upanishad relates this experience in the same chapter of the Shurangama Sutra in which Great Strength Bodhisattva explains how he became enlightened (see "The Enlightenment of Great Strength Bodhisattva ").

  Vaibhasika ... A Hinayana school of the reality of all phenomena... It is said that there were four branches of the Vaibhasika school, so called after the Vaibhasika Shastra. 1.Sthavirah 2.Sarvastivadah 3.Vatsiputriyah 4.Mahasanghika... The school adhered primarily to two Sarvastivadin texts, the Jnanaprasthana and Abhidharmavibbasa-shastra.

  Vaisya ... Vaisya in Sanskrit, Vaishya in Pali. The third of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were merchant, entrepreneurs, traders, farmers, manufacturers, etc., but not well-educated.

  Vajrayana ... Also called Tantrayana.

  Vast and Long Tongue ... one of the thirty-two monks of Buddha, big enough to cover his face; it is also one of the "marvels" in the Lotus Sutra.

  Vasubandhu ... Buddhist philosopher of 500 A.D. The 21st Buddhist patriach of Mahayana Buddhism. He was great Buddhist commentator in Hinayana, but was converted to Yogacara by his brother Asanga.

  Vatsiputriyas ... Vatsiputriyas in Sanskrit, Vajjiputtakas in Pali. Hinayanist sect often linked with Sammatiyah, which broke from the orothodox Sarvastivada. The founder was Vatsa. They may be classified as Pudgalavadins, accepting the pudgala transmigrated, and rejecting the theory of the Five Skandhas (the Five Aggregates comprising personality). They were considered schismatics through their insistence on the reality of the self. That individual self is neither the same nor different from the Five Skandhas. The doctrine challenged the Dharma exposition by the Sarvastivadah. The school was later dividied into four: Dharmottariyah Bhadrayaniyah Sammatiyah Sannagarikah

  Vedana ... see Sensation or Five Skandhas.

  Vedas ... Literally, it means knowledge. They are basic scriptures of Hinduism in India, composed between 2000 and 500 B.C. They consist of Rg-veda, Sama-veda, Yajur-veda and Atharva-veda. The collection is also known as the Vedic Samhita. Apart from Samhita, the Vedic literature regarded as Sruti were Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanisads.

  Vibhajyavada ... Literally means Distinctionist or Holders of the Doctrine of Distinctions. A sect of Ashoka's Council at Pataliputra (i.e. the Third Council). They were called as they made a distinction of phenomena in time into two categories; those that exist and those that do no... The meaning of the term, not necessarily limited to this sect, is the method of particularization in dealing with questions in debate. It is said that this school was established to harmonize the difference between the Sthaviras and Mahasanghikas... The Abhidhamma Pitaka was the definite work of this school, thus they gained supremacy over the Sarvastivadins in the Third Council.

  Vigor ... the fourth Paramita, pure and unadulterated progress, i.e. zealous and courageous progressing in the good, and eliminating the evil.

  Vimalakirti-Nivdesa Sutra ... Vimalakirti, a Sanskrit word, means undefiled and pure reputation. Vimalakirti was said to be a native of Vaisali, and an upasaka (not a monk) to assist Shakyamuni to preach and cross over the human beings. The Sutra is the record of interesting conversation between Vimalakirti and Manjusri Bodhisattva regarding the understanding of One Buddha Vehicle.

  Vinaya School ... Emphasizes the monastic discipline founded by Tao Hsuan of the Tang Dynasty in China.

  Vipasyana Sukhavativyuha Sutra ... It is one of the main sutra for Pure Land Sect. The Sutra indicates that the Pure Land of Amitabha Buddha is one of the Buddha Lands. It also describes how to be born in the Pure Land through the Sixteen Contemplations. Therefore, the Sutra is also called "Sixteen Contemplations Sutra".

  Visvabhadra Bodhisattva ... As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is the one with the highest conduct. Visvabhadra, also known as Samantabhadra, means universal worthy. He is the lord of the fundamental law, the dhyana ( taking precepts) and the practice of all Buddhas. Visvabhadra, the guardian of law, is often placed on the right of Shakyamuni, while Manjusri, the guardian of wisdom, is the left. He always rides on a white elephant, is the patron of the Lotus Sutra, and its devotees, and has close connection with Hua-yen Sutra. He has Ten Great King Vows, which give an excellent guideline to all Buddhists to practice and cultivate the Buddha Way.

  Volition ... or mental formation, or action, or conduct, or deed, usually done through the body, mouth or mind. The Sanskrit word is Samskara.

  Vasubandhu Bodhisattva's Commentary on the Way to Reaching Pure Land ... A commentary by Vasubandhu Bodhisattva on the Infinite Life Sutra. In twenty-four stanzas, Vasubandhu explains how to attain birth in the Pure Land and praises the wonders Pure Land.

  Vairochana ... A Sanskrit name for Shakyamuni Buddha, the Thus Come One of this saha world. In Sanskrit, the name Vairochana means "pervading everywhere." It refers to the Dharma body of Shakyamuni Buddha.

  Way ... Generally, it refers to the Way of Bodhi or enlightenment leading to Nirvana through spiritual stages, and even to Buddhahood through Bodhisattva's practices. Sometimes, it is also called the Path, the Road, the Truth, the Reason, the Logos, Cosmic Energy, etc., depending on different circumstances.

  Wheel of Law ... The Buddha-truth which is able to crush all evil, and which rolls on from man to man, place to place and age to age. To turn the wheel means to preach Buddha-truth.

  Wheel-rolling King ... Cakkavatti-raja in Pali, Cakravarti-raja in Sanskrit. Also known as Sagely Wheel-turning King. There are four such kings, each with a precious wheel of gold, silver, copper, and iron. The kings reign over the four areas in north, south, east and west. It is believed that the Gold-Wheel King is to come in perfection and unify the world. In Indian mythology, he is the ideal ruler.

  Wisdom ... the highest of Paramita; the virtue of wisdom as the principal means of attaining Nirvana. It connotes a knowledge of the illusory character of everything earthly, and destroys error, ignorance, prejudice and heresy.

  World Honoured One ... One of the titles of the Buddha. In Sutras, this is the respected title of Shakyamuni Buddha. See also Ten Titles of Buddha.

  Western Pure Land ... See "Pure Land."

  Wheel of Dharma ... See " Dharma wheel."

  Wheel-turning kings ... (Sanskrit: chakra-varti-rajas, "holy kings who turn the wheel.") Great kings who rule various worlds but are not as high as Buddhas or great Bodhisattvas.

  World Honored Ones ... Buddhas.

  Worldly dusts ... See "dusts."

  Wonderful Enlightenment ... See "Ten Grounds."

  Yaksa ... The demons in the lower realm, like the Ghost Realm. They are evil, malignant and violent. They live on earth or in air.

  Yana ... a Sanskrit word means vehicle. A term applied to Buddhism as a means by which a practitioner cultivates on the path to enlightenment. The different vehicles correspond to views of spiritual path, that differ as to the basic attitude of the practitioner and the means of making progress on the way. There are categories of one, two, three and five vehicles.

  Yasodhara ... the wife of Siddhartha Goutama. She later became a Bhikhuni.

  Yogacara ... See Dharmalaksana School.

  Yakshas ... Demons who can move very fast.

  Yin Guang ... Master Chin Kung's Dharma Teacher was Professor Ping-Nan Lee. Professor Lee's Teacher was Master Yin Guang.

  Yin Kuang ... See "Yin Guang."

  Zeal ... see Vigor.

  Zen ... also called Chan; see Contemplation and Meditation.

  Zen ... A Japanese school of Buddhism, which is much like the Chinese school of Buddhism known as Chan. "Zen" is the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese character "Chan" (or "Ch'an").

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