Purify Mind
     Glossary A-
       Glossary N-
         Pure Land

Power Of Mind    
Hua Yen        

  DHAMMA TALKS on the FOUNDATIONS of MINDFULNESS (Satipatthana Sutta) / by H.H. Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara Supreme Patriarch of Thailand (Venerable Suvaddhano Bhikkhu) / Wat Bovornives Vihara Bangkok, Thailand

  Tan Chao Khun Phra Brahmamuni (Suvaca Thera) originally organized a series of Dhamma talks at Wat Bovoranives Vihara. He would present a sermon and then, after the monks chanted, everyone would sit in meditation. I was invited to continue with this and as I considered it beneficial I accepted the task. However, I also pointed out that I was not a meditation teacher. I still had responsibilities concerned with teaching and various other duties, and so could not fully practise developing myself, let alone attain to a level able to train others. My Dhamma explanation therefore always had to depend on the scriptures, and if I happened to stray from them, I also felt as if I had lost my way. I had to rely on the footprints of those gone before to show the way, which I could not manage on my own. At first, the sermons of Tan Chao Khun Brahmamuni were read out. Then, in the Rains Retreat of 2504 B.E. (1961), I started to present talks of my own. These were tape recorded and later transcribed. The Maha Satipatthana Sutta, the Great Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness, is regularly chanted at Wat Bovoranives Vihara. I can recite all of it which helped when I was presenting my Dhamma explanation. This Discourse is a major pillar in the practice of both calm and insight, and so was chosen as the first text to present. The Dhamma talks were given twice weekly, on the evening of the quarter moon day and the following night. As those that came to listen did not attend on every occasion, I would usually summarize and recapitulate the earlier talks. Previously, I wrote about my reliance on the scriptures but in some places my explanation may actually differ from the normal interpretation. I nearly cut such passages out but in the end didn't, for I am sure that even if those additional thoughts which popped up of themselves are incorrect, they will receive the forgiveness of my readers for not being intentionally misleading. I will therefore leave them there for Dhamma students to investigate and consider. These twenty-two Dhamma talks should be read and carefully considered, so as not to stray from the true way of practice in the foundations of mindfulness.*** The teaching presented here follows the way found in the Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness, which contains the essential and graduated steps of practice. It is a way which those who practise respect and appreciate. However, some people may charge that it is inappropriate and lacking benefit because it brings a feeling of weariness and depression. It is rather likely that the people who say this are actually afraid of realizing the truth. It's similar to being fearful of the doctor's examination of one's illness or closing one's eyes to the truth. This is not a characteristic of a clever person. If you read this book, you will discover the truth of the 'knots' and problems that exist within yourself. In short, this can be described as the 'knot of suffering.' You may also then see the method to unravel and safeguard against this suffering. When actually trying out this practice, you will be able to cure your own suffering in accordance with the Buddha's Teaching. You will also experience a joy unknown before.*** This book has already been reprinted many times in Thai. I therefore requested Bhikkhu Ariyesako and Bhikkhu Kantasilo to translate it into English so as to make it more widely available. I would now like to thank them both for bringing this work to completion and I hope it will be of benefit to all.*** Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara / (HH the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand)

Talk 1: Kammatthana: The Place of Work
  Kammatthana is a place of work, and here it means where one works on one's mind. In virtually everyone the mind is forever thinking and concocting, leading to the arising of lust (raga) and greed (lobha), hatred and aversion (dosa) and to the birth of delusion (moha). The mind is then enveloped in the contrivings of issues and affairs and habitually smothered in defilements. Such a disquieted and unstill mind can find no peace, just as there is no rest for the waves of the sea.*** The mind infiltrated with such defilements is so biased and unbalanced that it can't recognize the truth, can't see conditions for what they really are. For instance, the mind bound up with lust or greed must incline towards the pleasant, attractive side of things, creating a predilection for a certain thing. Liking it, one becomes biased and it will then appear 'perfect,' 'good' or 'quite nice' --depending on how much one favours it. Even if something is really not at all good, one assumes it to be so because one is attracted to it through the prejudice of lust and greed.*** When the mind is warped by hatred, it will then take the negative side and turn away from things. Whatever is hated the most will then appear 'totally bad' or --according to the level of one's aversion-- 'plainly bad' or 'not so good,' etc.*** The mind imbued with delusion finds it even harder to see the truth. It's as if one is half-blind, seeing things only dimly. Even one's conjectures probably do not accord with the truth because the mind is already obscured with delusion.*** Lust, greed, hatred and delusion not only unbalance and agitate the mind but also block the development of wisdom (pannya) which would be able to penetrate to the actual state of things. The Lord Buddha therefore taught about the two places which can be established for working on the mind, the two kammatthana: Samatha kammatthana is the mind's working place to develop calm (samatha).*** Vipassana kammatthana is where the mind can attain insight (vipassana) into the truth.*** Working for calm is the first step because the mind needs relief from the defilements which bind and envelop it. One can then practise for insight as the tranquil mind is balanced and free from the bias of the defilements. Whatever is then investigated can be seen clearly for what it really is, and this is where insight begins to develop.

The Refuges (Sarana)
  Just as the earth receives and supports our footsteps, so it is necessary, right from the beginning in developing these work places, to have a shelter and solid foundation for the mind. The mind's true refuge is the Triple Gem (Ti-Ratana): the Buddha, the Dhamma , and the Sangha. One must first determine the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha as one's true refuge, and recollect and contemplate their special virtues and qualities. Thus, the Lord Buddha is truly the Awakened One; the Dhamma is truly the Way of practice to the end of all defilements and suffering; and the Sangha are those who are truly following the Dhamma Way to its fruition. The cultivating of a profound appreciation for the qualities of the Triple Gem requires a deep understanding of what the Buddha taught: that it indubitably leads to the ending of all suffering. The more one can perceive the profundity of Dhamma the more one can appreciate the achievement of the Lord Buddha. One's mind will then go for refuge to the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha without hesitation or wavering. Establishing one's mind in the Refuge of the Triple Gem is the preliminary step in the development of the kammatthana working places. So will you all please resolve to accept this refuge for your minds, securing a trust and faith in Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha --and also a trust and confidence in your own ability to practise. This especially applies to the kammatthana work which you have determined to practise. Know that it leads to calmness and tranquillity, to wisdom and insight. It is the true and certain support for your mind. Precepts and Moral Virtue (Sila)*** Now the ground or foundation for the mind's support can be laid. This is moral virtue (sila) which is actually the natural (pakati) state of the mind undisturbed by the defilements. These defilements will incite and force the mind into intending (cetana) and setting into motion wrong actions through body and mind. Sometimes you may find yourself unable to maintain this natural state of mind because of business or work affairs, etc. However, once you enter the place of Dhamma practice, you must firmly resolve to refrain from wrong, unskilful behaviour. In other words, do not break the five precepts(1). At this present time you must be especially careful to guard the natural virtue of the mind. Do not allow it to be pulled down into unskilful ways. When you can sustain this natural state of mind, you will find the mind endowed with moral virtue. Once this virtue is present, it forms the foundation on which to rest and base the mind. When your mind has such a foundation, together with a refuge safeguarding your Dhamma practice from any of the defilements' attacks, then an opportunity opens up: an opportunity to follow the way of kammatthana and establish a place to cultivate your own mind.*** 4th August 2504 B.E. (1961)

Talk 2: The Foundations of Mindfulness: Satipatthana
  The Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness (Satipatthana Sutta) directly takes up and explains the training of the mind. In fact the Lord Buddha even said that it is the only way to transcend sorrow, to see the Dhamma that needs to be seen and to come to the end of suffering with the realization of Nibbana. This, therefore, includes the perfection both of calm and insight. However, one initially needs to know about the basis of practice, the kammatthana. This, as I have mentioned previously, means a place of work --a work place for the mind. It requires the determination to establish a foundation for one's practice. But where can one find this base for one's concentration? Endeavouring to establish the mind in the affairs of external objects --a visual object, a sound, odour, taste, tangible or mental object(2)-- can only lead the defilements to infiltrate the mind. The mind is then based in the defilements rather than in the kammatthana. Thus the decision of exactly where to direct and base one's practice becomes crucial. The Lord Buddha taught that we should direct our attention back inside ourselves. The foundation for the mind's development will be found right here inside ourselves and not at all in external things. To be more specific, inside oneself refers to the body (kaya), feeling (vedana), mind (citta) and mental objects (dhamma) --all complete in each one of us.

Body (Kaya)
  Turning one's attention back to oneself, looking from the outside in, one first comes across this body. One notices that, whether awake or asleep, a basic and essential function is breathing. There must also be one or another bodily postures --walking, standing, sitting or lying down. There are then the secondary positions such as, when walking, one bends the arms and legs or one turns and glances around. Even as you are sitting here now there is always a certain natural way for positioning your feet for sitting. Then there are the other parts to this body (rupa-kaya) made up of the external and internal organs, etc. Externally there is the hair on the head, body hair, nails, teeth and skin, and internally such things as flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, bile, kidneys, heart, etc. These bodily constituents can all be reduced and considered in terms of elements (dhatu). For example, the organs which tend to hardness come under the earth element; those which are fluid, under the water element; those that are 'heating,' under the fire element; and those that produce motion, under the wind element. As long as all these elements are properly associated together, the whole body appears normal; but should they disperse then what's left is a dead body. For example, if the wind element fails then the breathing ceases. The body then becomes bloated and decays until only bones remain, and eventually even those skeletal bones will disintegrate. Before its formation this body did not exist, and so in the final event it returns to nonexistence. This is the section on the body.

Feeling (Vedana)
  In a living body where the elements are in harmony together there is also feeling: Pleasant feeling (sukha-vedana), painful feeling (dukkha-vedana) or neutral feeling which is neither-painful-nor-pleasant (adukkha-m-asukha vedana)(3). For example, this body experiences feelings of cold and heat, of softness and hardness.

Mind (Citta)
  An intact body with elements smoothly functioning together forms a support and resort for the mind. The state of everyone's mind varies. Sometimes lust is uppermost and sometimes it subsides; sometimes there is hatred or delusion and sometimes they subside.

Mental Objects (dhamma)
  Examining the mind to a deeper level, one finds that it is always involved and concerned with various affairs, some of these being good, some bad, and some in between. These follow the principle of the Pali phrases: Kusala dhamma all mind objects which are wholesome. Akusala dhamma all mind objects which are unwholesome. Abyakata dhamma all mind objects which are indeterminate or neutral. These are all found in one's mind. So we can now say that this body, these feelings, this mind and these mental objects are together what make up myself, and right here is where the Discourse advises us to base our attention and mindfulness. In actual practice though, we first concentrate on just one of these bases.

Concerning the Breath
  The first point is that to use the in-and-out breathing as the base for establishing mindfulness. A living body must always have breath but we never pay any attention to it. So our practice is now to bring mindfulness to bear on this natural breathing pattern. The Lord Buddha explains (in the Discourse) that one holds the body erect(4) and firmly establishes mindfulness. Mindfully one breathes in, mindfully one breathes out. Instead of sending the mind off elsewhere, one concentrates it wholly on the breath. This will lead to a more subtle awareness. Breathing in a long breath, be aware of it. Breathing out a long breath, be aware of it. Be aware of a short in-breath and a short out-breath, but do not tense or force the breathing. Just let go and breathe naturally --but be aware. The Discourse then continues with instruction to note the whole body. Experience and know your whole body as the breath goes in and out. Expand your awareness to cover the whole body including both the mental group (nama-kaya) and the corporeal group (rupa-kaya). Considering the mental group, be aware of the state of the mind, of the present condition of your mindfulness and concentration. How are they at this moment? Note the body through awareness of its posture and position. How are you sitting? From the soles of your feet upwards, and from the crown of your head downwards: Be completely aware of your body. After we fully accomplish this awareness of both groups, the Discourse then goes on to teach about calming the in-and-out breathing. This does not involve any forcing or holding of the breath, but is a natural calming down. When the mind becomes refined, so in turn does the breath. The Lord Buddha taught that if the mind is unquiet then the breathing will be rough and gross. However, should the mind become calm, then the breathing also becomes more refined and subtle. Sometimes the breathing may even seem to have stopped, but there is no need to panic. You have simply calmed down while the breathing still remains.

The Four Fundamentals of Practice
  You must have energy and determination (atapa) in your practice, and this includes conscientiousness . For example, you determine to practice for a specified time period and so must therefore fulfill that aim without any slackness or cutting short. Even though you may feel frustrated and want to give up, you must carry on to accomplish your objective. With such conscientiousness everything develops smoothly and well. Thus atapa is the first essential in the practice. The second principle is awareness and clear-comprehension (sampajannya) of oneself at all times. Don't be absent-minded or negligent by falling asleep or losing mindfulness. Permitting sleep and allowing your attention to fade indicates a lapse of clear-comprehension in your kammatthana practice. This is like straying from the path and falling into a chasm or pit. Therefore, awareness and clear-comprehension must be well guarded and supported. They thus form the second fundamental in the practice. The next principle, mindfulness (sati), is awareness fixed and firmly established without any drifting from the chosen object(5). Should another mental object suddenly interrupt leading to rapture (piti) or excitement, then don't lose yourself in it but quickly return to your base. For example, reject all distractions and turn your full attention back to the in-and-out breathing. Once mindfulness is well established, your practice can develop without the harm that may arise from absent-mindedly drifting away with the thoughts and moods that have arisen. The harm comes when you too readily abandon mindfulness and become a heedless daydreamer. Therefore, steadfastly establish your mindfulness. Don't allow it to drift away. This is the third principle. The fourth principle is to overcome hankering and dejection concerning the world(6). This is an important point, for whenever one encounters a pleasant mental object in one's practice, one must consider it as a deceit and a false perception. Likewise, if an unpleasant experience arises --such as a mental image (nimitta) which provokes fear-- then one must again be mindfully aware that none of it is real. Being neither-glad-nor-dejected with anything that arises, one continually brings mindfulness back to the established object and anchors it there. In this way concentration (samadhi)(7), and eventually wisdom (pannya), will arise and one's practice will progress well. These four fundamentals are essential for everyone who practises. If they are dispensed with, the practice is thereby abandoned --with possibly harmful results. But with these principles well established, one's practice can only be beneficial and develop well.*** 5th August 2504 B.E. (1961)

Talk 3: Expanding and Summarizing on the Section Concerning Breathing
  I would now like to expand the explanation on mindfulness of breathing (anapana-sati). The Discourse advises sitting erect in the samadhi-posture with mindfulness alert and firmly fixed on the in-and-out breath. Various ways for developing such mindfulness are then given: 1. Breathing in a long breath one knows, 'I am breathing in a long breath.' Breathing out a long breath one knows, 'I am breathing out a long breath.' 2. Breathing in a short breath one knows, 'I am breathing in a short breath.' Breathing out a short breath one knows, 'I am breathing out a short breath.' 3. 'Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe in,' thus one trains oneself. 'Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe out,' thus one trains oneself. 4. 'Calming the activity of the (breath-)body, I shall breathe in,' thus one trains oneself. 'Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe out,' thus one trains oneself.

  In the first and second stages --of breathing in and breathing out a long breath, and breathing in and breathing out a short breath-- one has to realize exactly how one is breathing at that moment. This refers to the ordinary, unforced breathing which normally goes unnoticed. With careful attention one will realize that the breaths are either long or short. When fatigued or tired, one can see that the breathing becomes heavy, perhaps with panting or gasping. When the mind is upset and unquiet, one may also tend to take longer breaths than when one is calm. Breathing exercises may also involve deep breathing. With the body rested and peaceful, the breathing becomes quieter and more refined. When the mind is also tranquil, the breathing is even more delicate and refined. At first your mindful attention on the breath may not seem to bring any fruitful results. However, with persistence the mind will become more firmly established, allowing contentment (chanda), rapture (piti), and gladness (pamojja) to arise. This offers you a first taste of the fruits of the tranquil mind, the mind endowed with samadhi, which will encourage you onwards in your practice. The third stage --of experiencing the whole body with the breath-- is concerned with being aware of all the corporeal group and the mental group. Be aware of your posture as you sit practising here, of the position of your hands and feet. Take note of the state of your mind and the clarity of your mindfulness and concentration. Such an awareness of the whole body indicates a broad mindfulness. This must be so refined that experiencing the whole body becomes experiencing the whole breath-body with each breath. One notices, in simple terms, that the in-breath enters at the nose, passes midway at the heart and ends at the navel, whereas the out-breath starts at the navel, passes the heart and ends at the nose. This is one gauge for helping to direct one's attention. However, following the breath in and out will actually unsettle and unfocus the mind. The Lord Buddha therefore taught that one should fix the mind on that single point where the in-breath starts and the out-breath ends, i.e. where the breath contacts the nostrils or upper lip. This single point is the mark (nimitta) where one stations the mind. With each in-and-out breath one notes the air touching that mark (the nostrils or upper lip), and this is known as experiencing the whole body and breath-body. This can be compared to sawing a piece of wood. Attention is focused solely on the cutting point and not on the complete length of the saw as it moves back and forth. Seeing that one point is like seeing the whole saw and, similarly, in attending to just that single mark one experiences the whole breath. This is the third stage. Calming the activity of the breath-body is the fourth stage of training. This does not involve any suppression or holding of breath in an attempt to force it to become more refined. Rather, it involves a strengthening of the mind's concentration and calm. When the mind is calm and refined, so is the breath. The opposite way, of stimulating and exciting the mind, achieves only tension and stress. The practice of concentration or samadhi is for peace and tranquillity in both body and mind. When the body and mind are still, the aim of this part of the practice is reached. However, the essence here is rather in stage three (above), with the fourth stage following on from there.

Counting and "Buddho"
  In the beginning of the practice, trying to use only the Pali (textual) instructions may be too difficult to accomplish. Therefore additional devices to engage and hold the mind have been offered. For instance, there is (mental-) counting of the breaths. This can first be done in a slow pattern by counting each succeeding in and out breath as follows: Inhale (count) one ... exhale (count) one, Inhale (count) two ... exhale (count) two, Inhale (count) three ... exhale (count) three, Inhale (count) four ... exhale (count) four, Inhale (count) five ... exhale (count) five. Then return again to counting one--one; two--two... etc., but this time continuing the sequence so that you end with six--six. Repeat the sequence again, returning to one--one (and so on) but this time adding seven--seven; then back to one--one and then up to eight--eight; one--one then up to nine--nine, and finally, the completed sequence from one--one to ten--ten. After completing a full sequence from one to ten, begin the cycle again as before, i.e. one--one to five--five and so on, until reaching one--one to ten--ten again. When the mind is sufficiently steady, a pattern of more rapid counting can be used. This entails (mentally-) counting one with the inhalation and two with the exhalation. Continue this sequence until you reach five. Then, returning to one continue until you reach six. Carry on these rounds until you reach ten. These counting techniques can be individually adjusted to one's own practice so as to achieve satisfactory results. One possible adaptation, for example, is to count from one straight through to ten and, having counted ten, return to one and start the cycle again. If plain counting does not suit you then the word 'Buddho' may be used instead. Inhale (mentally-) reciting 'Bud-', and exhale, (mentally-) reciting '-dho'. Inhale 'Bud-', exhale'-dho,' and so on. Counting or using a mantra word such as Bud-dho is a useful aid in the beginning stages of the practice. It can be compared to using lined paper to guide the hand when we were first learning how to write. When a suitable degree of competence, steadiness of mind and practice has been attained, the device of counting and Bud-dho should be discarded, with a pure mindfulness carrying on alone. This is the general method of practice, and each practitioner should decide what is most suitable. This method is purely for the developing of calm, and will bring peace and stability to the mind. I would like to remind you of the four fundamentals of practice: Conscientious perseverance (atapa and sacca), full and clear comprehension (sampajannya) and mindfulness (sati). These are always essential to your practice.

The Benefits of Samadhi
  The unquiet, restless mind wastes time and effort with its lack of application and focus. We may wish to study a book but cannot concentrate due to disturbing and proliferating thoughts. However, a mind well trained (as described above) in calm and steadfastness allows us to apply ourselves. For example, we can apply ourselves to that book and can quickly digest and understand it, with a better recall as well. Thus the gains and benefits of the trained, stabilized mind manifest not only in a passive resting of the mind in happiness, but also in whatever activity we may engage in.*** 1st August 2504 B.E. (1961)

Talk 4: Review of the Basic Practice
  Samatha kammatthana is the place of work to bring calmness and stability to the mind. Vipassana kammatthana is where insight into the truth arises in the mind. One begins practice by taking refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha because one is following the Lord Buddha's Dhamma rather than any other way. Faith (saddha) and confidence (pasada) in the Buddha --He who has opened up the Way for our practice to follow-- is the going for refuge. You should determine to keep at least the Five Precepts. Even your sitting here now is also to establish and improve your moral virtue. With your refuge, faith and precepts established, you can now practise for calm and insight. The practice leading to a calm and stable mind is elucidated in the Great Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness (Maha Satipatthana Sutta) as mindfulness of breathing. One establishes mindfulness on the in-and-out breath, long or short (etc.), experiencing the whole body and calming the breath-body. The (Buddhist) Teachers have also offered supplementary ways: focussing the attention at one point in the breathing cycle (i.e. at the nostrils or upper lip where the breath makes contact), for example, or using counting to help, or by reciting 'Bud-dho'. There are other variations, but they always boil down to focussing the mind in one place. When your mind becomes one-pointed, you can be sure everything is going well. But at any rate, just keep your mindfulness focussed and you will be able to make the mind one.

Characteristics of the Mind
  I would like to explain a little more about the nature of the mind; how difficult it is to tame and control with its habitual jumping and racing about. Even with mindfulness fixed on a single object, it will continually buck and pull away. Where does the mind jump to? It struggles around among mental objects, following after desires, wishes, attractions and the obstacles (palibodha) which are worries and anxieties. These external involvements are those concerns which we think and conceive about. Once they are caught up in the mind they agitate as worries and anxieties. If they are many and you are unable to throw them out, then the mind can't be pacified. However, everyone with true determination can expel them and achieve a calm mind.

The Method of Examining the Mind
  Mindfulness is essential for guarding the mind right from the beginning. Any inattention, and the mind will have darted away in a flash. The mind must then be speedily led back inside if mindfulness is to be recovered. If one checks to see why the mind had darted away, one may find the cause in something like the sound of a car, of people walking past, or the noise of something falling. The mind zips away to that particular sound and then starts to roam further afield. It may have wandered on through many varied episodes before one realizes the fact and is able to return it to one's determined point. However, should another noise intervene, the mind may then be off again --continuing on from one thing to another in what might seem like a moment even though it spans many different episodes. Using mindfulness, always return the mind to your chosen point and, carefully establishing mindfulness, examine it there. The mind will then be pacified and, when checked in any particular episode, will usually not go off there again but will rather follow some other affair instead. This method must be repeated until the mind is tamed and able to come to calm with contentment (chanda), rapture (piti) and ease (pamojja). This will give a taste of the first stages of calm and samadhi, furthering your satisfaction in the practice and facilitating the focusing and settling of the mind in samadhi.

  Following on from the section on breathing is the section on posture (iriyapatha-pabba). Here the Lord Buddha teaches the use of clear-comprehension. When walking, one is aware of one's walking; when standing, one is aware of one's standing, and likewise with sitting or lying down. When changing position, be aware of that movement. Aim to keep up this clear-comprehension and awareness. On close examination one finds intention (cetana) present before any position is taken up, or even before one moves to change that posture. For example, there is the intention to walk or to sit. However, in the actual walking or sitting, one's clear-comprehension is liable to be broken by the mind's straying away in thinking of other affairs. Therefore, make sure that clear-comprehension is aware and safeguarding any posture you are presently in.


|Purify Mind| |Glossary A-| |Glossary N-| |Pure Land| |Outlook| |Power Of Mind| |Emptiness| |Hua Yen| |No Ego| |RealMeaning| |Chanting| |Heart Sutra| |FortyEightVows| |Sutras| |HuaYen Sutra| |Bequeathed| |Amitabha| |Wisdom| |Giving| |HELP| |Refuge| |Education| |Practice| |Buddhism| |Treatise| |Philosophy| |Vimalakirti| |Teaching| |Tibetan| |Karma| |HEALTH| |Hinayana| |Study| |Ideas| |Meditation| |Dharma| |Diamond| |Scriptures| |Intro| |DalaiLama| |Rinpoche| |Science| |Teaching I| |Teaching II| |Lama| |Zen| |Buddha| |Hinayana I| |Study I| |Guide| |Practice I | |How To| |Rinpoche I| |Teaching III|