Uddaka-ramaputta in Pali, Udraka-Ramaputra in Sanskrit. A sage under whom Shakyamuni studied meditation. The state reached by Uddaka-Ramaputta was that at which neither thought nor non-thought exists.

Udumbara Flower
Udumbara flower blooms once every three thousand years, so it is rare and wonderful. It is used to describe how rare the occasion is.

Unconditioned dharma
Also known as Asamskrta dharma, which is anything not subject to the principle of cause and effect, nor law of dependent origination, i.e. conditions. It is the dharma beyond the worldly ones.

One of the four types of Vedic literature in ancient India, which are basically Brahmanic philosophical texts. It is a sophisticated exposition of Indian philosophy and metaphysics about man and universe.

A town in Magadha where Shakyamuni attained his enlightenment and Buddhahood in the woods along Nairanjana river.

One of the Hinayana School, a branch of Mahasanghika. It was established in the third century, after the Nirvana, whose seat is described as north of Jetavana.

unconditioned merits and virtues

Merits and virtues that do not have outflows and can therefore bring about liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

Understanding Buddhism

A book on basic Buddhism by the Venerable Master Chin Kung. It is currently being translated into English.

Universal Worthy Bodhisattva

A major Bodhisattva who personifies the transcendental practices and vows of the Buddhas (as compared to the Bodhisattva Manjushri, who represents transcendental wisdom). Often depicted seated on an elephant with six tusks representing the six paramitas. Achieved enlightenment by by doing "Ten Great Practices" and taking "Ten Great Vows," as related on the page titled "Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40."

Universal Worthy's Conduct and Vows

Chapter 40 of the Flower Adornment Sutra, in which Universal Worthy Bodhisattva made Ten Great Vows which contain the essence of the Mahayana. See the page titled "Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40."


(1) (Sanskrit) Dust-motes; thus, an inconceivably large number. (2) One of a set of Hindu scriptures called the Upanishads. (3) The name of a Bhodisattva who, before becoming a Bodhisattva, was plagued by an attachment to the female human form. To free himself of this attachment, Upanishad contemplated unpleasant features of dead and living human bodies, including bodies suffering the revolting effects of boils, wounds, and diseases. Once he was freed from his bondage to his to the flesh, he attained enlightenment. Upanishad relates this experience in the same chapter of the Shurangama Sutra in which Great Strength Bodhisattva explains how he became enlightened (see "The Enlightenment of Great Strength Bodhisattva ").