He was one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni. He was the first in esoteric practices and in desire for instruction in the Law. He was also the son of Shakyamuni.

Rajagaha in Pali, Rajagrha in Sanskrit. The capital of the ancient kingdom of Magadha in India, which was the centres of culture at the time of Shakyamuni. The first Bodhi mandala of Buddhism called Bamboo Grove Park was built by the elder Kalanda and King Bimblisara of Magadha in Rajagaha.

Living in the Ghost Path. Like Yaksa, they are evil and violent, but inferior to Yaksa.

Realm of Form
See Three Realms.

Realm of Formlessness
See Three Realms.

Realm of Sensuous Desire
See Three Realms.

Or Conception or Thinking. The Sanskirt word is Sanjna. It is the function of mind. It may lead to desire. One of the Five Skandhas.

One of the Four Unlimited Mind. As one of the chief Buddhist virtues, renunciation leads to a state of "undifferent without pleasure or pain". It is also an equality in mind with no distinction of self and others.

Right Action
The fourth of the Eightfold Path; respect for life (do not kill), property (do not steal) and personal relationship (no sexual misconduct) so as to purify one's mind and body.

Right Concentration
Right abstraction, the eighth of the Eightfold Path; meditation, focusing the mind without distraction, preparing the mind to attain wisdom.

Right Effort
Right zeal or progress, unintermitting perseverance, suppressing the rising of evil states and stimulating good states, and to perfect those which have come to beings.

Right Livelihood
The fifth of the Eightfold Path; right life, abstaining from any of the forbidden modes of living. Five kinds of livelihood are discouraged : trading in animals for slaughter, dealing in weapons, dealing in slaves, dealing in poison and dealing in intoxicants.

Right Remembrance
Right memory, right mindfulness; the seventh of the Eightfold Path, avoiding distracted and clouded state of mind, awareness and self-possessed.

Right Speech
The third of Eightfold Path, abstaining from lying, slander/back biting, abuse/harsh words and idle talk.

Right Thought
Right thought and intent; avoiding desire and ill-will; the second of the Eightfold Path.

Right Understanding
See Right View.

Right View
Understanding the Four Noble Truths; the first of the Eightfold Path.

See Matter or Five Skandhas.

raging skandas

See "five skandas."


A fearsome ghost.

Realm of Reality

See "Dharma Realm."

Realm of Truth

See "Dharma Realm."


" not . . . one part by reckoning, one part by calculation, one part that can be demonstrated by comparison, or one part in an Upanishad ." (Flower Adornment Sutra, Chapter 40.) No matter how you figure or calculate it, a very small number.

Refuge, Taking

See "Triple Jewels."


Rebirth on earth or other lower realms during the cycle of birth and death. Rebirth in the Pure Land ends the cycle of birth and death; Pure Land inhabitants, freed from the cycle of birth and death, are said to be beyond retrogression.

reward body

See "Three Bodies of the Buddha ."


The kind of accumulated karma that an individual has at birth. Persons whose accumulated karma is good are said to have "good roots."