A Bodhisattva in South India, born into a Brahman family about 800 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni, i.e., 200 AD. He was the founder of Madhyamika (Middle Way) and Sunya (emptiness). He had plenty of writings in Buddhism. He was one of the chief philosophers of Mahayana Buddhism.

The founder of Jain religion, i.e. Jainism.

A Sanskrit word interpreted as a numeral, 100,000 or one million or ten million.

Nine Realms
The nine realms of error, or subjection to passions, i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm. The nine realms are
the hell,
the hungry ghost,
the animal,
the man,
the Asura,
the gods,
the Arhat (sound hearer),
the Arhat (enlightened to condition), and
the Bodhisattra.

Nine Stages of Lotus Flowers
Or Nine Grades, Classes of Lotus Flowers, i.e. upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, upper medium, middle medium, lower medium, upper inferior, middle inferior and lower inferior, which represent ninefold future life into Pure Land. The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land, corresponding to the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one's distance from Amitabha, the consequent aeons that are required to approach Amitabha, and whether one's lotus will open early or late.

Nirvana is a Sanskrit word which is originally translated as "perfect stillness". It has many other meanings, such as liberation, eternal bliss, tranquil extinction, extinction of individual existence, unconditioned, no rebirth, calm joy, etc. It is usually described as transmigration to "extinction", but the meaning given to "extinction" varies.

There are four kinds of Nirvana:
1.Nirvana of pure, clear self-nature
2.Nirvana with residue
3.Nirvana without residue
4.Nirvana of no dwelling

Nirvana of pure, clear self-nature
It is commonly possessed by all individual sentient beings. It is not subject to birth and death, nor increase and decrease.
Nirvana with residue
The cause, but not all the effect (Karma) of reincarnation is cut off and removal of the obstacle of affliction, but not that of what is known (Dharma), thus the body which remains is subject to birth and death. Those beings are Arhats.
Nirvana without residue
Both the cause and effect of reincarnation are extinguished, both afflictions and what is known (Dharma) are extinguished. All kinds of suffering are externally in stillness. There is no further residue. Those beings are Bodhisattva.
Nirvana of no dwelling
With the aid of interactive wisdom and compassion, those who do not dwell in birth and death, nor in Nirvana, but continue to cross living beings over forever.

No Strife Samadhi
Strife means debating and fighting. It is a kind of Samadhi, i.e. right concentration/meditation. To cultivate and attain this Samadhi, one will not argue or angry with others as one has no differentiation between self and others.


(Literally, dragons.) A class of deities with great wisdom.


(Sanskrit) A very large number.

nine realms

The entire universe.


(1) Enlightenment. (2) The point in time at which a Buddha or other enlightened being leaves our world and moves on to the Buddha-realms. See also "Parinirvana."

Numata Center

The Numata Center, 2620 Warring St., Berkeley, CA 94704 (USA), is a non-profit publisher of books on Buddhism. The center was founded by the Rev. Dr. Yehan Numata. Its Internet address is
Telephone: (510) 843-4128.

Nine Realms

All realms in the cosmos, with the exception of the Buddha realms.