See Vigor.

Eight Divisions of Gods and Dragons
Devas (gods), Nagas (Dragons) and others of eight divisions (classes): deva, nagas, yakas, ganharvas, asuras, gaudas, kinaras, mahoragas.

Eight Negations
The eight negations of Nagarjuna, founder of Madhyamika, are actually four pairs of neither birth nor death, neither end nor permanence, neither identity nor difference, neither coming nor going. This is one of the important concepts of the Middle Way, the ultimate truth of Buddhism and the reality character of all Dharma.

The Eight Precepts
They are:
1.no killing
2.no stealing
3.no sexual misconduct
4.no false speech
5.no alcoholic drink
6.no cosmetic, personal adnornments, dancing or music
7.no sleeping on fine beds
8.no eating after noon

Eight Sufferings
(1) Suffering of Birth
(2) Suffering of Old Age
(3) Suffering of Sickness
(4) Suffering of Death
(5) Suffering of being apart from the loved ones
(6) Suffering being together with the despised ones
(7) Suffering of not getting what one wants
(8) Suffering of the flourishing of the Five Skandhas

Eight Winds
Or the Winds of Eight Directions. Most people are usually moved by the winds of the eight directions:
(1) Praise
(2) Ridicule
(3) Suffering
(4) Happiness
(5) Benefit
(6) Destruction
(7) Gain
(8) Loss

Eighteen Different Characters
There are eighteen different characters of a Buddha as compared with all other beings in the Nine Realms.
1.His perfection of body (or person)
2.His perfection of mouth (or speech)
3.His perfection of memory
4.His perfection of impartiality to all
7.Unceasing desire to save
8.Unflagging zeal therein to save
9.Unfailing thought thereto to save
10.Unceasing wisdom to save
11.Powers of deliverance
12.The principle of the powers of deliverance
13.Revealing perfect wisdom in deed
14.Revealing perfect wisdom in word
15.Revealing perfect wisdom in thought
16.Perfect knowledge of the past
17.Perfect knowledge of the future
18.Perfect knowledge of the present

Eighteen Fields
The Six Consciousness and the Twelve Bases are together called the Eighteen Fields.

Eighteen Sects of Hinayana
I.Mahasanghikah is divided into eight schools:

3.Kaukkutikah (Gokulika)
6.Jetavaniyah (Caityasailah)

II.Sthavirah or Aryasthavirah is divided into ten schools:

2.Vatsiputriyah (developed from Sarvastivadah)
3.Dharmottariyah (developed from Vatsiputriyah)
4.Bhadrayaniyah (developed from Vatsiputriyah)
5.Sammatiyah (developed from Vatsiputriyah)
6.Sannagarikah (developed from Vatsiputriyah)
8.Dharmaguptah (developed from Mahisasakah)
9.Kasyapiyah (developed from Sarvastivadah)
10.Sautrantika (developed from Sarvastivadah)

Under (I), the first five are stated as arising two centuries after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni, and the remaining three a century later, dates which are unreliable.

Under (II), the Haimavatah and the Sarvastivadah are dated some 200 years after Nirvana; from the Sarvastivadah soon arose the Vatsiputriyah, from whom soon arose the third, fourth, fifth and sixth; then from the Sarvastivadah there arose the seventh which gave rise to the eighth, and again, near the 400th year, the Sarvastivadah gave rise to the ninth and soon after the tenth.

In the list of eighteen, the Sarvastivadah was not taken into account, as it split into all the rest.

Eightfold Path
The eight right ways for the Arhat leading to Nirvana. The eight are:
(1) Right View
(2) Right Thought
(3) Right Speech
(4) Right Action
(5) Right Livelihood
(6) Right Effort
(7) Right Remembrance
(8) Right Concentration

Ekavyavaharika in Sanskrit, Ekabyohara in Pali. One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Mahasanghikah, which considered things as nominal, i.e. just names without any underlying reality. They held that the mind is by its nature pure and radiant, inaccessible to defilement.

The Sanskrit word is Sunya. One of the key concepts in Buddhism. Emptiness is an abstract idea representing impermanence, unreality, instability, transience and relativity in the nature of all existence. The doctrine states that all phenomena and the ego have no reality, but are composed of a certain number of Skandhas or elements, which disintegrate. The doctrine also states that everything is unstable, possessing no self-essence or self-nature, i.e., its own existence dependent or caused by the conditions of others' existence.
Emptiness is not nothing, but it is the condition of existence of everything. It permeates all phenomena making possible their evolution.

See Patience.

See Vigor.

"Enlightenment" sometimes refers to the attainment of Buddhahood, as the "Enlightened One" means Buddha. If one is enlightened, one has a complete and perfect understanding of the reality character of everything.

Evil World of Five Turbidities
It refers to the world on Earth. The Five Turbidities are
1.the Kalpa Turbidity the age of people decreases and all kinds of diseases afflict people;
2.the View Turbidity people's views start to degenerate;
3.the Affliction Turbidity passions, delusions, desire, anger, stupidity, pride and doubt prevail;
4.the Living Beings Turbidity human miseries increase and happiness decreases;
5.the Life Turbidity the human lifespan gradually diminishes to ten years.

It means having put the Two Obstacles, i.e. the obstacle of afflictions and the obstacle of what is known, to an end. It also means that the beings have transcended the Two Deaths, i.e. glare-sectioned birth and death and changed birth and death.

Earth Store Bodhisattva

Earth Store Bodhisattva (Sanskrit: Kshitigarbha) is considered one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas because he is foremost in the strength of vows.

eight adversities

Eight conditions under which it is difficult to meet Buddhas and Bodhisattvas or hear the Dharma: (1) rebirth in the hells, (2) rebirth as a hungry ghost (3) rebirth as an animal, (4) rebirth in Uttarakuru (a world where life is so pleasant that people have no motivation to practice the Dharma) (5) rebirth in any long-life heaven (where one is also not motivated to seek the Dharma), (6) rebirth with impaired faculties, (7) rebirth as an intelligent, educated person in the mundane sense (such an individual often looks down on religion and on the Dharma), and (8) rebirth in the intermediate period between a Buddha and his successor (such our current era). Note that even rebirth under "favorable" circumstances (under the fourth and seventh conditions, for example) can be an "adversity" with respect to the Buddha Dharma.

eight consciousnesses

Eight kinds of perception or discernment that occur when our sense organs make contact with objects in our environment. The eight consciousnesses are: (1) sight consciousness, (2) hearing consciousness, (3) scent consciousness, (4) taste consciousness, (5) touch consciousness, (6) mind consciousness, (7) Mano consciousness (defiled mind), and (8) Alaya consciousness. The first five consciousnesses correspond to the five senses. The sixth consciousness (i.e.,our ordinary mind) "integrates the perceptions of the five senses into coherent images and makes judgments about the external world. The seventh consciousness [afflicted or defiled mind] is said to be the active center of reasoning, calculation, and construction or fabrication of individual objects. Buddhist scholars have said that it is the source of clinging and craving, and thus the origin of the sense of self or ego and the cause of all illusion that arises from assuming the apparent to be real.

eight groups

Eight levels of powerful spiritual beings: (1) The devas (heavenly beings whose bodies radiate light and who dwell in the six heavenly realms); (2) the nagas; (3) the yakas , or flying deities. (4) The gandharvas, who live only on perfumes and are the musicians of the Indra, the Hindu god of heaven; (5) the Asuras , or beings who rank just above humans in the six states of existence; (6) the ganrudas, or golden-winged birds (the length between their wings is more than three million miles, and they eat dragons); (7) the kinaras, a horn-headed, semi-human species who are singers for Indra; and (8) the maharajas, a category of naga deities with large abdomens. All eight groups of beings in this list are invisible to humans.

eight sufferings

Birth, (2) old age, (3) disease, (4) death, (5) separation from loved ones, (6) meeting uncongenial persons, (7) unfulfilled wishes, and (8) the suffering associated with the five raging skandas.


The realization of the true nature of oneself and the true nature of the universe and everyone in it. There are three different kinds of enlightenment: (1) self-enlightenment, (2) the ability to enlighten others, and (3) the ability to attain self-enlightenment as well as to enlighten others. For more details, see the first chapter of "Understanding Buddhism" by Master Chin Kung. See also "Great Enlightenment."


A state in which one realizes one's own Buddha-nature, or becomes self-realized. See also three kinds of enlightenment.

Enlightenment of Great Strength Bodhisattva

See " Shurangama Sutra."

Equal Enlightenment

See "Ten Grounds."

evil deeds

See "ten evil acts."

evil paths

See "three evil paths."

exalted powers

(Sanskrit: abhidjnas, abhijina). Supernatural powers attained by enlightened beings. They are: the heavenly step , which is a power of transmutable body that can travel through all space without impediment; the heavenly eye, which can see without limitations of time or space; the heavenly ear, which can hear all sounds and understand all languages and voices; the knowledge of previous existences of oneself and other beings; and asravakchaya, the knowledge of the stream of life and exhaustion of worldly passions.


Adherents to non-Buddhist religions.

Ekajati-pratyekabuddas – A Buddha-elect or a Bodhisattva who is well on the path to go through the various stages to become a Buddha