See Jetavaniyah.

See Jetavaniyah.

The four heavens of the four Deva-Kings. It is the lowest of the six heavens of the Realm of Desire.

Causal Ground
Fundamental cause; the state of practising the Buddhism which leads to the resulting Buddhahood.

Cave of the Seven Leaves
Saptaparna-guha in Sanskrit, Sattapanna-guba in Pali. The site of the First Buddhist Council, near Rajagaha.

A wheel in Yoga, one of the psychic centres of the body.

Also called Zen; see Contemplation and Meditation.

Chan School
The Chan School was established in China by Bodhidharma, the 28th Patriarch who brought the tradition of the Buddha-mind from India. This school, disregarding ritual and sutras, as they believe in sudden enlightenment which is beyond any mark, including speech and writing. They practice meditation with Hua Tou. This school is said to be for those of superior roots.

Or almsgiving, the first Paramita. There are three kinds of charity in terms of goods, doctrines (Dharma) and courage (fearlessness). Out of the three, the merits and virtues of doctrines charity is the most surpassing. Charity done for no reward here and hereafter is called pure or unsullied, while the sullied charity is done for the purpose of personal benefits. In Buddhism, the merits and virtues of pure charity is the best.

Chih Che
Chih Che (A.D. 538-597) was the Third Patriarch of the Tien Tai School. He had a deep understanding and insight on the Lotus Sutra. He wrote many books to explain the doctrines in Lotus Sutra, which established the fundamental structure in the teaching of the Tien Tai School.

A method of cultivation, commonly practised in Tien Tai Sect in China. It is similar to meditation, looking into the mind.
There are two processes:

1.Chih - a Chinese word which means fixing the mind to meditate on the ten Dharma realms.
2.Kuan - a Chinese word which means contemplating and looking into underlying reality of all things.

No priority of cultivation is given to the one or the other, but should be cultivated simultaneously. Its principle and the aim of practice is to realize the Three Dogmas and to attain Sudden Enlightenment.

There is no existing phenomena that is not the effect of dependent origination. All phenomena arise dependent upon a number of casual factors called conditions.

Conditioned Dharma
It refers to all phenomena and law in the world. The worldly dharma is governed by the Law of Cause and Effect and Law of Dependent Origination or conditions. In general, there are three kinds of conditioned dharma, namely

1.form - all material which has form.
2.mental - related to all mental activities.
3.neither form nor the mental.

Abstract contemplation. There are four levels through which the mind frees itself from all subjects and objective hindrances and reaches a state of absolute indifference and annihilation of thought, perception, and will. See also Meditation.

Thought, thoughtfulness, active thoughts, mind, a state of consciousness.


See "Chan."


A school of Buddhism that emphasizes meditation on a puzzling concept, or koan, as a method for attaining enlightenment. (Chan is the Chinese pronunciation of "Zen.")

Chin Kung

Chin Kung is Venerable Master of Pure Land Learning Centers in Asia, Australia,
and the United States. Author of Understanding Buddhism and many other works
presented on this Web site.

City of Ten Thousand Buddhas

The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Talmage, CA, was founded by Venerable
Master Hsuan Hua. It is the U.S. home of the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association
and Dharma Realm Buddhist University.


Walking slowly in single file around a Buddha or an image of a Buddha, usually chanting the Buddha's name. In Pure Land, this is a type of Buddha recitation that groups of people often perform.


See "five skandas."


A word used to describe all the various phenomena in the world, which are made up of separate, discrete elements -- that is "with outflows" -- and have no intrinsic nature of their own. Merits and virtues with "outflows" are said to be conditioned; that is, they lead to rebirth within samsara . Conversely, unconditioned merits and virtues do not have outflows and can therefore bring about liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

Contemplation Sutra

A Sutra that describes sixteen contemplations on Amitabha Buddha and his Pure Land. Sometimes called The Sutra on Observing (or Visualizing) Amitabha (or Amitabha and his Pure Land). Sanskrit: The Amitayur Dhyana Sutra. One of the five principle Pure Land Texts.

Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation

The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation in Taipei, Taiwan, is the original publisher of many of the texts presented on this Web site. The Foundation's address is 11 Rd Floor, 55, Hang Chow S. Rd. Sec 1, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Telephone: (02) 395-1198.


See " Dharma Realm."


To practice Buddhism.


One who practices Buddhism.

cycle of birth and death

The unending cycle of birth, death, and rebirth that sentient beings experience until they become enlightened or are reborn in a Buddha-land such as the Pure Land. Pure Land inhabitants are freed from the cycle of birth and death so they can focus their full attention upon continuing their progress toward enlightenment