One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Mahasanghikah. One of their chief doctrines held Buddha's teaching to be twofold: transcedent on one hand and mundane on the other.

Bamboo Grove
Veluvana in Pali, Venuvana in Sanskrit. The first monastery (Bodhi-mandala) in Buddhism located in Rajagaha. It was donated by the elder Kalanda and built by King Bimblisara of Magadha.

One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah.

Sanskrit word, i.e., the Buddha of Medicine Master, who quells all diseases and lengthens life. He is the Buddha in the Pure Land of the Paradise of the East, i.e., Pure Land of Lapus Lazuli Light.

Bhiksu in Sanskrit, Bhikkhu in Pali. A monk, who has left home, is fully ordained to follow the way of the Buddha, and depends on alms for a living.

Bhiksuni in Sanskrit, Bhikkhuni in Pali. A nun observing more strict rules than a Bhiksu. See also Bhiksu.

A term used in both Sanskrit and Pali, meaning perfect wisdom or enlightenment.

The mind of enlightenment. It is with this initiative that a Buddhist begins his path to complete, perfect enlightenment.

An Indian missionary monk who came to China in 600 A.D., regarded as the founder of the Chan (Zen) School of Buddhism in China, i.e. the First Patriarch.

A monastery where Bhiksus (monks) and Bhiksunis (nuns) practise and teach the Buddhist Dharma.

It also generally refers to a holy place of enlightenment; a place for teaching and learning the Dharma; a place where a Bodhisattva appears and where devotees have glimpses of him.

Bodhisattva in Sanskrit, Bodhisatta in Pali. A Future Buddha who is a being destined to Buddhahood. Bodhi means Enlightenment and Sattva means Sentient and Conscious. Therefore Bodhisattva refers to the sentient being of or for the great wisdom and enlightenment. Bodhisattva's vow/aim is the pursuit of Buddhahood and the salvation of others and of all. He seeks enlightenment to enlighten others. He will sacrifice himself to save the others. He is devoid of egoism and devoted to help the others. The way and discipline of Bodhisattva is to benefit the self and the others, leading to Buddhahood.

One of the three major deities of Hinduism, along with Visnu (Vishnu) and Siva (Shiva). Adopted as one of the protective deities of Buddhism.

The highest of the Four Castes in ancient India at the time of Shakyamuni. They served Brahma, with offerings; the keepers of the Vedas, i.e. priestly caste.

One of the four types of Vedic literature in ancient India. The portion of the Veda that deals with ceremony and rituals.

Name used in the present text for the priestly caste of Hindus. See Brahman.

Means "the Enlightened One" or "the Awakened One".

That is, Buddhaland. The term is absent from the Hinayana schools. In Mahayana, it is the spiritual realm acquired by one who reaches perfect enlightenment, where he instructs all beings born there, preparing them for enlightenment, e.g.
Amitabha in Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss (Western Paradise), Bhaisajya guru (Medicine Master Buddha) in Pure Land of Lapus Lazuli Light (Eastern Paradise).

Buddha Nature i.e. the potential for attaining Buddhahood, or enlightenment. In the absolute sense, it is unproduced and immortal. Every sentient being possesses the Buddha Nature, but it requires to be cultivated in order to be revealed.

Burning Lamp Buddha
He was the Buddha that bestowed a prediction of Buddhahood on Shakyamuni Buddha. He was the one who gave Shakyamuni a name, saying "In the future, you will become a Buddha named Shakyamuni."

Bhavana, mental culture, development, the control and evolution of the mind, meditation

Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma, the 37 qualities contributing to Enlightenment

Bodhisatta (Pali)/Bodhisattva (Sanskrit), A Buddha to be, one who has resolved to attain Enlightenment for the helping of all sentient beings.

Brahma, (in Hinduism, The Creator, The Universal Self); in Buddhism, a divine being of the Form Sphere or the Formless Sphere, Happy and blameless celestial beings, inhabitants of the higher heavens.

Buddha, The Awakened One, The Enlightened one

Buddho, a recitation of the Buddha, an example of a mantra


(Sanskrit) Big-bodied ghosts.


Sanskrit for enlightenment.


The posture of a Buddha. "To sit in a Bodhimandala" is another way of saying, "to become a Buddha."

Bodhi Mind

The spirit of enlightenment, which has two parallel aspects: the determination to achieve Buddhahood, and an aspiration to help all sentient beings become enlightened.

Bodhi Tree

The tree under which Shakyamuni Buddha, meditating, attained enlightenment.


See Bodhi Mind.


(Sanskrit) Seat or site of Enlightenment. By extension, a temple or place of retreat.

Bodhisattva grounds

See "Ten Grounds."

Bodhisattva path

See "Great Vehicle."

Bodhisattva Who Contemplates at Ease Guan Yin Bodhisattva.

Bodhisattva Who Contemplates the Sounds of the World Guan Yin Bodhisattva.


Enlightened (or almost enlightened) beings who aspire to Buddhahood not only for themselves, but for all other sentient beings as well. Some Bodhisattvas, such as Guan Yin and Da Shi Zhi, are fully realized beings who have vowed not to accept Buddhahood until all sentient beings have become enlightened. The word Bodhisattva can also refer to anyone who has developed the Bodhi Mind, the aspiration to save oneself and others.


Members of the highest caste in India (the priestly caste).


The highest state that an enlightened being can attain. Any person who has attained the transcendental wisdom, and has broken the bondage of birth and death, is ready to enter the Nirvana. There have been innumerable Buddhas in the past, and there will be many more.

Buddha Dharma

The teachings of Shakyamuni Buddha or other Buddhas. See also "Dharma."

Buddha Educational Foundation

Buddha of Infinite Light

Amitabha Buddha.

Buddha recitation

General term for a number of practices, such as the oral recitation of Amitabha Buddha's name and the visualization (contemplation) of his auspicious marks and the wonders and adornments of the Pure Land. When used in a broad sense, it also includes such sundry practices as cultivating the Ten Great Vows of Samantabhadra, building temples, reciting sutras, and so on.

(The) Buddha Speaks of Amitabha Sutra

See Amitabha Sutra.


Lands created by and presided over by Buddhas.


The inherent nature of all sentient beings. In the Mahayana view, Buddha-nature is the true. immutable, and eternal nature of all beings. Because all beings possess Buddha-nature, it is possible for anyone to attain enlightenment and become a Buddha, no matter what level of existence one occupies. The answer to the question whether Buddha-nature is immanent in beings is an essential determining factor for the association of a given school with Theravada or Mahayana, the two great currents within Buddhism. In Theravada, this notion of inherent Buddha-nature is unknown, so the potential to become a buddha is not ascribed to every being. In contrast, the Mahayana school sees the attainment of Buddhahood as the highest goal; it can be attained through the inherent Buddha-nature of every being through appropriate spiritual practice.


See "Ten Grounds."


A body of teachings, consisting of the elements of ethics, science, metaphysics, and the law of universe etc.; taught by Shakyamuni the Buddha (560-480 B.C.).

Buddhist Text Translation Society

The Buddhist Text Translation Society in Burlingame, CA, is the publishing arm of the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association.

butter lamp

A lamp with wicks made of cotton or cloth that has been dipped in butter.

Plentiful good actions

Bhadra Kalpa
The era presently we are in

By means of which, Enlightenment is attained

Spiritual heart or Bodhi seed

Convocation of Buddhist adherents where Buddha formally reached his Buddha-hood

Appelation for one who has reached the stage below that of Buddha

Appelation for one who has reached the final stage of Perfect Enlightenment other appelations being:
Tathagata – Suchness
Arham – Veneration deserving
Samsaksam-Buddha – Full of universal knowledge
Vidyacarana Sampanah – With full knowledge of all supernatural power
Sagata – Having completed the pursuance of the Eight Noble Paths heading for Nirvana
Lakavit – With thorough knowledge of the world
Anuttarah – Highest order of sentient beings
Purusadem-yasarathin – Great tamer of men
Sastadeva-manuchyanam – Teacher of both celestial and human beings
The World Honored One

Buddha-Rupa – Body of Buddha