Jigme Khyentse Rinpoche
Heart of Buddhism
Helsinki 10.9.2001

Heart of Buddhism is so difficult to talk about because I think only the Buddha knows it. Myself I am someone who is attempting to practise the buddhadharma, I am not saying I'm managing well, because it is so difficult, but I'm an attempting Buddhist practitioner. So, sometimes we see reporters going to historical places where famous people lived and sometimes there is some old person who has seen that old person who's seen another old person - I'm a little bit like that. I've been amongst Buddhist practitioners and practitioners whom I consider have managed to see the heart of Buddhism. Those what I call my teachers. So living in their presence then I have heard a few words which I will try to say, but I am not at all of any kind of an authority.

So as it is not an authority of Buddhism, you also may not feel that you are here listening to some very authentic Buddhist teachings, so please relax, feel really comfortable. If you need to stretch, to move, switch on your mobile phone, talk to people - go ahead and do it, feel really relaxed.

So, I consider my role to be a radiated guinneapig (you know, those they use at laboratories), because I have had the fortune of meeting really great masters, great practitioners whose names I would just like to say: Kangyur Rinpoche, Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche,HH Dudjom Rinpoche, Kyabje Trulchik Rinpoche and Pema Wangyal Rinpoche. They are my teachers. So I'm just letting you know like when you see a guinneapig what kind of radiation it has been radiated with, it's a label.

So, as you see me please don't think that I'm a Buddhist specimen. I'm not at all like my teachers; I'm not representing them. Actually I'm not what a Buddhist looks like. Just so that you don't have any kind of mistakes. As you see I'm a fat person sitting on a stage talking to you. So, that is my c.v.

And so, as been known usually when people chat, sometimes it takes long and it gets boring so if you get bored, don't worry about disturbing anyone just get up and do whatever you like.

What is Buddhism?

Now as far as Buddhism in general is concerned, one can categorize it in many many ways. One way of categorizing it can be dividing it into Shravakayana Path and Mahayana Path. And if one wonders why Buddhism, meaning why did Buddhism excist? Why this path? It's because all of us have something driving us, something pushing us, something that makes us do things, whatever it is. So sometimes we call it a wish to be happy, sometimes we call it wish not to be unhappy, but something common to all. And Buddha dharma is something that corresponds to that.

1) So maybe we can say that there is heart of Buddhism that is present in every sentient being. And as far as that is concerned it is said that everyone has it, weather you're feeling good or bad, feeling that you're in great turmoil or feeling most happy, weather you're most powerful or not powerful. Even in the worst moments when you're in tremendous difficulty they say that that is within all sentient beings. That is the possibility that we have: getting out of it and becoming enlightened.

The potential or the possibility of being free is sometimes seen in the way we are, when we do things, when we think it's possible. At that time that possibility is present, it is more visible. At other times it's not visible but it doesn't mean that the situation is hopeless. That possibility we all have, that is why we ask ourselves "why?" and "how?". Why and how. The reason why those words exist is I think because we have the potential.

2) And then the next thing, next aspect of heart of Buddhism is the path. Path or process of making that possibility apparent and happening.

3) And then the real heart of Buddhism is when that potential is not covered or constricted or there is no obstacle preventing it from happening. Preventing it from giving us and expressing that tremendous courage.

So, now as far as that first aspect, the basis or that potential that we have, potential of Buddha, enlightenment, freedom - what ever you would like to call it - as far as that is concerned, we all have it. And of course it expresses in different ways especially when we do not know about it.

It's something that's really part of us, something that's present all our lives. We don't know about it. The example one uses is that it's like a goldmine under a beggars shack. It is said that the gold does not say:" I'm here, if you dig a little bit you'll get rich". And the beggar has no ears and no eyes to see through. I'm not talking about the soul; I don't even know what the soul is. But here I'm not talking about the little person inside us telling us to do good things or bad things. So, of course we would wonder, how do we know that there is that? What proof do you have? Well, of course we think that there is that, or maybe it is just something people said to make us feel good, maybe it's just the power of suggestion, that when you tell someone "you are good, you are good, you are good" they start to feel good. It's not like that.

I think if you have to give it an ordinary every day like word, we can call it hope. But a hope that's based on reasoning. Because there is a difference between thinking:" I hope there will be a rain of Finnish Marks tomorrow" and "I hope tomorrow will be sunshine". There's a difference! I'm so sure, I can tell you, and there will not be a rain of Finnish Marks tomorrow. And of course some of us can hope that we have a good night tonight. There are things we can do about that. So, as far as this basis is concerned. Basis, or the first aspect of the heart of Buddhism is that for example in our daily life we have a great dimension of feelings. Of liking, not liking, of irritation, no irritation, so much possibilities and with each of them as we know it is possible to intervene in how they can happen.

For example if you and I were having a quarrel and we both were very, very angry and in the middle I have to go and talk on the phone. And when I put the phone down, there is a possibility that the quarrel will continue - there's also a possibility that it will not continue. It's possible that in the meantime while I was on the phone, somebody that I like very much was on the phone and changed my whole feeling, and who knows, you also got distractions and the quarrel will not continue.

So, let's imagine how we feel while we are angry and talking loud - almost about to punch each other - how the whole world looks like at that time anyone around will irritate us. And afterwards if just at that moment that we stopped talking I was in the phone and you met the dream person of your life, oh, we might think, oh, it was so good, because you and me were fighting, the person was telling you to calm down, and happens to be your soul mate or whatever. Everything changes.

So the difference between the feeling that we had previously and afterwards is different. In certain words we can say that because of what ever, the situation changed in the middle, and we got freed from the previous moment.
So there is a possibility of freeing oneself from that previous emotion. Due to circumstances, be it in our mind or outside, have made it so that one instant before we can say that our life is hell and almost afterwards it's heaven. So that possibility of being able to free oneself from that specific emotion, can be seen as a reflection, or a distant radiation of the Buddha nature, that we all are supposed to have. The possibility that we all have of getting enlightened.

So, the second part is the process of digging that gold. That's more difficult, because as we know the ground outside is tough, but our mind, the ground of our mind and the crust on it is even tougher. I'm sure it is more difficult to be kind and to be sweet than breaking diamond. I don't mean for one individual, but if we look as we normally do, in statistics. For a diamond you just get a big thing and it becomes powder. It's supposed to be the hardest stone, but if anyone gets up here and says be kind to me, be sweet to me, it's so difficult. It's just invisible, but it's even harder. I'm not saying it's difficult for you, I'm saying it's difficult for me.

Because if we have to make a hole on the rock by digging it, I'm sure that if you give me just a small needle in a week I'll be able to dig a hole. But trying to make a small dent in this mind of mine is more difficult. In so many ways. One: it does not stay in one place. Second: even if it does, it's so tightly holding on to it's own possession that even if it knows that it's good for it, it just won't do it. So, it is in that respect, for that reason, that the Buddha taught 84 000 different types of teachings, a minimum of 84 000. It is said that the Buddha taught as many teachings as there are different emotions that need to be cured. And so we have talked of that aspect.

In the beginning we categorized these teachings into the path of the Shravakas and the path of Bodhisattvas. And so as far as following it is concerned one might wonder what should one do to follow it. Of course we might find many many reasons, many many ways interesting. Many, many inspiring creative ways of following it, but I think the main helpful thing is persistence.

So now as we're trying to dig the ground, to be able to dig the gold from the ground we have to know what the ground is made of. Because you can't just go into a shop and say "I want to dig, please give me something to dig with". So, when you ask in the shop I'm sure you know that they will ask you "What do you want to dig? Is it earth? Is it sand, stone, what is this soil - this ground - made of? And it is supposedly made of our mind. The way our mind thinks. And especially the way the mind holds on to what it thinks. It is what makes our mind move. Usually we call it emotions, I don't know if it's the right word, but anyway, it's what makes each of us move, makes each of us dress in a certain way, what makes each of us have different opinions, our own emotions. And as far as I'm concerned it does not require a degree in psychology.

It is said that what makes us, what this soil is made of is our wants and not wants and not knowing how to get what we want and not knowing how to not get what we don't want. In brief - fear. And not knowing how to be without fear. Fear of not getting what we want, fear of getting what we don't want. That is what drives us all. That is what makes us all nervous.

Obstacles of freeing oneself

If you want to use the term more known to the Buddhist spiritual materialists it's called attachment, anger and ignorance. But anyway, whatever you call it those are what covers this potential, what covers this hope, this courage - this possibility of being totally free, Buddha. How does it cover us? I'm sure who ever we meet and even if we think of ourselves: There is no way that any of us wants you suffer. None of us want to suffer and as far as suffering is concerned there are many elements for it.

For our pain and suffering to function fully as it does there are many elements needed. Of course the main cause that we think is everyone else. But not only that. If we look, it's also us. So, for us, as we know, nobody else can change it. The most probable one that can make a difference to our happiness or suffering is we.

As that is concerned, physically it is not so difficult. You can put creams, do what ever, take medicine, do some esthetic surgery; you can do a lot of things. As far as other things are concerned we can listen to music, sound, that's all right. Where we have more possibility to do is this thing called mind. When we talk about mind please, don't refer to any kind of specific definition of mind according to psychiatry, psychology or anything like that. What we call mind is this thing that's quickling in you at this very moment. The thing that does not let us sit down calm. The thing that does not let us drop what ever is bothering us. That thing that holds on to it and pours more on to it. That thing, that hammer that we have for hitting ourselves every day is called mind. But please don't think that I'm talking about any kind of special nature of mind at all, I'm not at all, I don't know what it is a nature of mind. But I know what my mind is. This thing that bothers me from the moment I wake up until I go to sleep, and that troubles me in my dreams - that is what I call mind.

So, perhaps mind as we know is so entangled with what we have called ground, this soil. It's so stuck with our emotions -this consciousness of ours, this awareness - is so stuck and that's what we are trying to do: separate the soil from the possibility of being free.

Training the mind

So, then there is this process or concept of training the mind. Training the mind to do what? We know that we don't need to train the mind to get attached to beautiful things. We do not need to train our mind to get upset at upsetting things. So what we're trying to do is that we are trying to train our mind so that it is not affected by fear and expectation, fear and hope. Fear of not getting what we want, it's called attachment as we know. I'm not saying that we should not like beautiful things. Of course you can see a beautiful house, a beautiful image, it's beautiful. But what is not beautiful is the suffering that we manage to get in us afterwards.

For example our neighbours car is beautiful, our neighbours boyfriend or girlfriend is beautiful. That does not matter, but what matters for us, as we know is that I don't have that. I don't get what my neighbour got. My neighbour got a good car, got a good pet from someone, got a good house, I didn't get it. Why not me?

So we won't call it attachment, we will call it "why not me?" That is what disturbs us, anyway, I don't know about you, but me, that's what disturbs me:" Why not me?" So, we are not saying that we should not be loving or we should not appreciate, but weather it is in appreciating beauty or what ever it is, the moment there is "why not me", there's trouble. There's trouble either for me or my neighbour. Either I might try to take away the car or the boyfriend or the girlfriend, and if I manage then it's trouble to the neighbour. And if I don't, I come back with a black eye, and that's trouble to me.

So, the other option is to train the mind. Of course we won't go out and hit our neighbour, but we have very many - I don't know, maybe I shouldn't say we have, I should say I have - very sneaky ways of getting that thing I want and dealing with "why not me's". Weather it is to seduce him, or weather it is through force, weather it is through complaining or what ever it is - we have so many ways of doing it. So, the fact is that it's not my neighbour's problem. My problem is not my neighbour's problem. I'm not saying that my neighbour does not think "why not me". That's a different thing, not for us to deal with. We are not going to train our neighbour's mind. But as far as I'm concerned, when I think "Why not me", that is my problem. The fact that my neighbour has a beautiful car, the fact that my neighbour goes for a trip abroad, the fact that my neighbour what ever is not my business. It's not because of that that I have problems, it's simply because I am so insecure.

So this insecurity of mine has manifested in "why not me". And the other side of it is called "why me?" That's called aggression. Why do difficult things happen to me, why, why, why? That is a mantra that all of us recite. From morning till evening we have been chanting that. So I'm sure if it was some kind of practice we would have already accomplished great things reciting this "why me, why me, why me" and "why not me, why not me, why not me". If it was an encyclopedia, I'm sure I would know it by heart. So that is definitely part of the things that makes me - how can I say - unattractive and undesirable, to me. Because that's what I hear from morning till evening.

And I'm sure - I don't know about others around me - but I'm sure also they find it quite difficult. Maybe they are kind and don't say it. So we all recite that mantra. Or maybe not all of you, but I recite that mantra.
So, to be free from "why me" and "why not me", we will have to want to be free from that.

So if we look at it in general, we have two possibilities: 1) either we are satisfied with how things are, and then don't bother about mind. 2) Or we are NOT satisfied and still don't want to bother about the mind. There are only those two possibilities. So if we are not totally satisfied with how our mind functions, then we have to have enough courage to look into it and face it.

And so let us look within a week, or within a day, how many "why not me's" and "why me's" we recite. I'm not saying that we say it aloud, of course we cover up "why me's" and "why not me's" with grammar, verbs, nouns, and then make it into somekind of thing called poetry or somekind of social chitchat or gossip, but what is it? It's "why me" and "why not me" wrapped up in a packing paper and we offer it to someone. This person is also quite gullible and does not see it and takes it. That's what we call conversation.

So the only way if we want to make a change is that we do not like "why me" and "why us", "why you". So imagine a person who does not know verbs, nouns, how to conjugate those well. Imagine that we are like that. And we don't put any objectives, any other words and do not know any other verbs, and do not know anything and I just go around and say "why me" and "why not me". It's like saying when you see somebody having nice sunglasses: "Oh, I like it, why don't I have it?" That is what we are meaning when we say, "Oh, you've got beautiful sunglasses!" What our mind is thinking is:" Wouldn't it be good if I had it?"

Or it might think what ever. When you meet somebody and say "hello", and they say "I'm happy, how are you?" and you say "I'm happy" and you probably think "Wouldn't it be good if I was that". If we look at it, that is how my mind - I don't know about you - my mind functions in that way. And it doesn't look very beautiful, it doesn't sound very nice. Sounds like somebody who either doesn't know how to speak or who's obsessed.


So the first step is accepting that it is like that, that's how I am at the moment. Accepting it doesn't mean that nothing can be done. Accepting doesn't mean anything else than that is how I am at the moment. So looking at it, seeing it, observing it. Taking our time to observe it, until we find some kind of unattractiveness to this "why not me". Before that there is no way that it will change. So, first aspect of training the mind is noticing the unattractiveness of some of the aspects functioning in our mind.

Because if we do not have that, we are on a path because either 1) it feels good to be part of something, or 2) we are totally in sane. In order to want to train the mind there has to be a reason.

For example when you see somebody doing a lot of physical exercise, they are doing it to keep fit - they are definitely not doing it to torture themselves. They are not saying, "I like doing this physical exercise because it is difficult". So when we train the mind, there is an essential thing on a Buddhist path called renunciation. But that's not just limited to Buddhism. It's also something we have to have in our daily life. People go to work for a reason. It is because of renunciation that they go to work. Because they want to renounce being poverty-stricken.

Renouncing "why me, why not me"-mind function

Also when people study and go to school even afterwards they study, it's because they want to renounce not knowing. So when we talk about renunciation it is not at all talking about sacrifice. Not about giving up something beautiful. So, the first aspect of renunciation is wanting to renounce one aspect functioning in our mind:" why me, why not me". It's mainly an emotion that makes you pronounce those words. This insecure feeling inside us that makes us say "why don't I have that, why do I have this". Of course we understand that it is not those words - if it was that we'd just tape our mouth and it would be okay. But inside something would still be bubbling.

So, it is said that it is very, very important that we look at it, and we are convinced that something needs to be done to change this odd scratched disk. To try to change that. As we know, as we said before it's difficult to scratch on it because it has so many layers - so many layers of habit, so many layers of beliefs. And there we need something called discipline. Discipline to first actually acknowledge that we have that "why not me"-disease, and then enough courage to want to cure oneself from that "why not me"-disease. Of course it is all preceded by the understanding that "why not me" is a disease. It is a disease because it makes us uneasy. So from that aspect trying to train this mind: as we said 1) first accepting that it is a disease, 2) and then accepting that we have that disease, 3) and then the discipline of not creating more cause of that disease. And for that, again, it's not easy. We can't just sort of say "oh yes, we'll cure that disease, we say a few theories and chant them, and tomorrow we'll be free from it."

I would like to give a small example what we can do. Or rather what we can try to do. It would be interesting if we could see first not even for a day, for half a day: How many "why em's" and why not me's" come. At first we won't be able, we just have to look back and think, "Oh, in this last past half an hour, how many why not me's have I thought, hiccups of why not me have I had?" Slowly, after a while we can probably notice it more while it's happening. Then one day one might be able to notice that struggle when that "why not" me happens. If you want to look for an antidote for "why not me", it's called "why not others".

So when we think:"Oh this person has got a good car, why not me" we say "Oh yes, Why not, why not, why shouldn't that other one have it too." Then we might think "but I want it, I like it, I'd like to have that kind of a thing." So what? So what if I want it? What can we say to that? There's no logical answer to it. We are jus illogical that time. Actually, on top of not getting what we want, we are pulling on ourselves extra trouble. That is what is illogical. When somebody else has something nicer than what we have, and we look at it and think, "why don't I have it", what are we doing? We are actually making ourselves feel worse, that's all. In a certain sense we are poisoning our own life. On top of not having that special thing, we are poisoning our own mind. That is why we might have heard sometimes that attachment is called poison. Same with aggression. And same with ignorance.

There are many layers of ignorance. First layer is not realizing that we have this disease of "why not me". So we go around looking for treatments, and we never find it. Of course we don't find it because we might have a toe ache and we are rubbing our head. For example if you went to see a doctor after someone walked on your foot and cracked something, wouldn't it be funny if the doctor was massaging your nose and said:"Oh, your foot has been displaced, I'll have to put your nose right". So, how do we expect that to cure anything. But if you have pulled some bones in your foot and twisted it, and doctor is pulling it back right, and it hurts, that's normal. In the same way, when we have the disease of "why not me" it is so difficult and painful to use that antidote of "why not us". We are so much more used to the other kind of blind antidote. When we say "why not me", and talk about it to somebody, and somebody says "yes, of course, why not you". So if you go to see the doctor and say: "Doctor, I have some pain in my foot", and he says "Oh yes, you have pain in your foot", and if he goes away, what's the use of that? That is how I see I act with my "why not me's".

So, now for the other path, witch is called "why not others". It is another approach that's called Mahayana, but it is always based on the previous one, Shravakayana. Essence of shravakayana is renunciation. Realizing that "why not me" is terrible, I want to let go of it. And there are of course many, many different ways of doing it, to practice of training freeing from "why not me's". And it definitely frees you from a big part of "why not me". And we say that until you're totally enlightened, there's always some "why not me's", or "why nots". Even when you're quite advanced on that path there's still some whys left.

So, the antidote for "why not me" is called "why not others". How do we go about doing it? So, at first, when we just simply say "why not others" there's some kind of surprise or shock. What would happen if I told my friend "Oh, this neighbour of mine is so noisy", and my friend then come and say, "Oh, there's a nice car your neighbour has", and I say, "Oh, it's a nice car but he's so bad person, makes a lot of noise etc.etc." My friend says, "All the same he still has a nice car", how would you feel? That's a little shock to our mind.

So, then after that if we're willing to, then we have to train the mind. First when you say "yes, why not others" you're a little bit surprised and shocked from that situation. There's two possibilities: one, we just continue on our "why not me's" and think "Oh, he's got it but maybe it's a stolen car, or maybe he got it on debt, maybe he'll never be able to pay it", that kind of thoughts. Or another possibility is that actually that person who has the car has every right to say "why not me".

So at that time what we're trying to do, is actually accepting that everyone has the right to say "why not me", not just me. What does it mean? Actually it is that we have so much difficulty accepting that there are other sentient beings.

To train Bodhicitta

There are seven more points that we will go through. So the first thing is that if we really look at this mind of ours, when we think "why does this person have this, why don't I have this", it shows that we are so visibly aware of me. This has completely cuttered the possibility of anyone else existing. I'm not saying that we're thinking we are the only person, but if we look the way we think, and the way we sometimes act, it is as if we were the only person on this world.

So the first part of this training is acknowledging - not saying aloud, but somehow emotionally - that there are other sentient beings. Of course we might all think "Oh yes, I know there are other sentient beings, somebody's sitting next to me etc.etc." but it is quite difficult to accept it to a degree, where we do not get disturbed by "why not me's". We have this shield that we use to protect ourselves, basically because of our insecurity. And because of that insecurity, emotionally we block out the possibility of anyone else existing.

1) So the first thing is training and acknowledging the existence of every other sentient being in this world. It's not a question of saying "Oh, I know somebody exists, I know I have neighbours". The sign that there is this non-acceptance of other beings existing around us is our uneasiness when somebody turns up.

When we are in a train, we always look for a compartment that is free, and when we are there in that compartment, it is very tempting for us to lock the door. Tempting for us to put our suitcases on the chair, so that others cannot come there. So the first part is getting used to, accepting and confronting that uneasy fear. With one, and then afterwards with infinite beings. When we get used to that, and when that is not so disturbing then not only am I acknowledging that they can exist, but I don't have that uneasiness about that anymore.

2) Next step is to get used to actually give them the right or the freedom to feel like we do. What does that mean? It means that just in the same way as I feel comfortable sitting on this chair, I have to accept that others can do it too. They have just as much right to do that because they also exist.

3) Let's imagine sitting on this nice coach in this train. Just as I like it, I have to get a step further. First step is accepting that they exist, that uneasiness. Next step is accepting the uneasiness that they can sit there. In other words we are giving others, other sentient beings the possibility of having emotions just as we do.
Let's have a film: they just got into this train with their suitcases and bags. All those things they're dragging and they are looking for a space to sit. I'm not saying that we are refusing, just how we feel about it. You are sitting on this chair, comfortable with your bag on your left side, and you have to lift it and put it on top. Then that second step of uneasiness is something we have to get used to. Get used to train our mind in not being too influenced by that. And that point when we don't mind that - that's just an example the train, anything else - when we get used to that then we feel not insecure at all.

4) But at that time, the next step is actually making the effort of saying, "Please come here, this is free".

5) After that then another kind of emotion or something develops. As we do not have any insecurity then we are not afraid, afraid of loosing anything. Before we had the fear of loosing something. Here we have no fear about it at all. So what happens when you have no fear, you're not frightened by someone, then you can be more comfortable. Then you can get used to that person. Which means that you are courageous enough - or rather mature enough - to relate to that person. Then you can even feel loving to that person. After a while, when you have got used to that training, comes another step.

6) As you can feel loving to the next person, without being afraid that they would rob your space in the train or anywhere - when you are not afraid but loving, then you can actually feel compassion to that person. You can feel the compassion when you see that person standing there with a rucksack, two suitcases, five handbags, sweating and looking for a seat. You have enough compassion, enough loving kindness to want to do something. I'm not saying you're doing something but you have no obstacle to want to help that person.

7) And from that we come to make way for you to actually get up and tell that person to sit there with all their suitcases and put them there and you can stand up. That comes from not fearing. At that time, that last one you actually get up and do it, at that point we are on the seventh one. That time even if you have to get up for every passenger in the train, you have no fear. We are totally free from "why nots" and "why not me's".

In traditional terms there are seven steps towards bodhicitta. Usually it's called considering all sentient beings as our parent beings, remembering their kindness, wanting to repay their kindness, loving kindness, compassion, altruistic thought and bodhicitta. Bodhicitta means wanting to get up from our "why nots" and "why not me's" to leave our space for all sentient beings, not one space, not one train, one passenger. We have at that point completely dealt with all our fears. No insecurity, no fear, no depression. We are just totally free from that fear and we can just stand up.

And even if you have to stand up for twenty years or hundred years, a million years to give your seat to them, you are not afraid of it. So it is not coming from a pious wish of wanting to be good. It's not like I want to be a good person so I want to be kind to others. It's that you have no fear because you have worked with it and it comes genuinely from compassion. Compassion and loving kindness that comes from not having their opposites. And it's not a question of a year, two years, five months, one hour a day, five minutes a day. It's a question of until I get it, I'll do it.

To accomplish that one has to take that thing as seriously as we take anything seriously in our life, like our profession. And to accomplish that we have to work also with a lot of difficulties. Because our habits are different from what we are trying to do. But it is definitely not more difficult than anything else we are trying to do in our life. In fact the result will be much better. Because it's a prospect of being totally free and fearless. But not the kind of ignorant fearlessness. Because there are few kinds of fearlessness. One fearlessness because we just don't know, another fearlessness is that we know that there is no reason to be afraid. So this kind of fearlessness is not insensitive fearlessness, it's a fearlessness that comes from feeling fully. One is not afraid of feeling.

Question: What if you want to give your seat but nobody wants it?

Answer:Oh, then you should give that, really. For example if you give your place to someone, but they don't want to sit down, you must not force them. But here what I was using was an example.

Greeting the Buddha

Before I finish I would like to do something. It's an acknowledgement of my gratitude to the Buddha. So, maybe you can consider it like me introducing you to the idea of Buddha. Like when you meet somebody and shake hands and somebody says, "This is Mr. This and this is Mr. That" and you say "Hello Mr. This and Mr. That". So, in future if you ever want to call that person you know their name. Even if not, just out of politeness I'm going to introduce you. So I will say the name of the Buddha, it's quite long, but please repeat after me: