Rec.Food.Veg's Most Frequently Asked Questions List


1 Definitions
1.1 Words frequently used in
1.2 Other confusing terms
1.3 Terms confused with vegetarianism
2 Frequently Asked Questions
2.1 What is gelatin? Is there any alternative to it?
2.2 What can be substituted for eggs?
2.3 What is rennet? Where is it found? How can it be avoided??
2.4 What is miso?
2.5 What is tofu?
2.6 What is tempeh?
2.7 What is TVP?
2.8 What is seitan?
2.9 Can you feed a cat a vegetarian diet? a dog?
2.10 What is Nutritional Yeast? / Which ones provide B12?
2.11 Are there vegan marshmellows available?
2.12 What airlines serve vegetarian meals?
2.13 Should I be worried about getting enough protein on a
vegetarian diet?
2.14 What about Vitamin B12 on a vegan diet?
2.15 How is "vegan" pronounced?
2.16 Can I eat at fast food places like McDonalds or Taco-Bell?
2.17 Is maple syrup vegetarian/vegan?
2.18 Is beer or other alcoholic beverages vegetarian/vegan?
2.19 Is sugar vegetarian/vegan?
3 Other sources on the Net
4 Addresses and Phone Numbers
4.1 Vegetarian and Vegan groups
4.2 Cruelty-free products information
4.3 Non-leather Products information
4.4 Mail Order Book Outlets
5 Recommended Literature
5.1 Cookbooks
5.2 Non-Fiction
5.3 Travel & Restaurant Books
5.4 Periodicals
6 Animal Rights Organizations
7 Issues
7.1 Rainforest Beef -- two views
7.2 Hidden Animal Products
7.3 Names of animals versus names of animal based foods

Subject: 1 Definitions

1.0 DEFINITIONS of words frequently used in this newsgroup...

Vegan: excludes animal flesh (meat, poultry, fish and seafood),
animal products (eggs and dairy), and usually excludes honey and the
wearing and use of animal products (leather, silk, wool, lanolin,
gelatin...). The major vegan societies all disallow honey, but some
"vegans" still use it. Some "vegans" also refuse to eat yeast

Dietary Vegan: follows a vegan diet, but doesn't necessarily try and
exclude non-food uses of animals.

Vegetarian: usually broken down further into OVO-LACTO, OVO, and
LACTO. Vegetarians may or may not try and minimize their
non food use of animals like vegans.

Ovo-Lacto Vegetarian: same as VEGAN, but also eats eggs and milk
products. This is the most 'popular' form of Vegetarianism.

Ovo Vegetarian: Same as VEGAN, but also eats eggs.

Lacto Vegetarian: Same as VEGAN, but also eats milk products.

Veggie -- Shortened nick-name for a VEGETARIAN; often includes VEGANs.

Strict vegetarian: originally meant vegan, now can mean vegan or

The term 'Vegetarian' was coined in 1847. It was first formally used
on September 30th of that year by Joseph Brotherton and others, at
Northwood Villa in Kent, England. The occasion being the innaugural
meeting of the Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom.

The word was derived from the Latin 'vegetus', meaning whole, sound,
fresh, lively; (it should not be confused with 'vegetable-arian' - a
mythical human whom some imagine subsisting entirely on vegetables
but no nuts, fruits, grains etc!)

Prior to 1847, non-meat eaters were generally known as 'Pythagoreans'
or adherents of the 'Pythagorean System', after the ancient Greek
'vegetarian' Pythagoras.

The original definition of 'vegetarian' was "with or without eggs or
dairy products" and that definition is still used by the Vegetarian
Society today. However, most vegetarians in India exclude eggs from
their diet as did those in the classical Mediterranean lands, such
as Pythagoras.

1.1 Definitions of some other confusing terms

Semi-Vegetarian: Eats less meat than average person. See also

Pseudo-Vegetarian: Claims to be vegetarian, but isn't.
Often used by VEGETARIANS to describe

Pescetarian: Same as VEGETARIAN, but also consumes fish.
(often is a person avoiding factory-farming
techniques...) See also PSEUDO-VEGETARIAN.

Fruitarian: Same as VEGAN, but only eats foods that don't kill the
plant (apples can be picked without killing plant,
carrots cannot).

Vegetable Consumer: Means anyone who consumes vegetables. Not
necessarily a VEGETARIAN.

Herbivore: Mainly eats grass or plants. Not necessarily a

Plant-Eater: Mainly eats plants. Not necessarily a VEGETARIAN.

Nonmeat-Eater: Does not eat meat. Most definitions do not consider
fish, fowl or seafood to be meat. Animal fats and
oils, bonemeal and skin are not considered meat.

1.2 Terms that are confusing when talking about VEGETARIANs

Kosher: Made according to a complex set of Jewish dietary laws.
Does not imply VEGAN in any case. Does not imply OVO-LACTO
VEGETARIAN in any case. Even KOSHER products containing
milk products may contain some types of animals which are
not considered 'meat'.

Pareve/Parve: One category in KOSHER dietary laws. Made without
meat or milk products or their derivatives. Eggs and
true fish are pareve, shellfish are not.

Nondairy: Does not have enough percentage of milkfat to be called
dairy. May actually contain milk or milk derivatives.

Nonmeat: Made without meat. May include eggs, milk, cheese.
Sometimes even included animal fats, seafood, fish, fowl.

Subject: 2 Frequently Asked Questions

2.1 What is gelatin? Is there any alternative to it?

Gelatin (used to make Jell-o and other desserts) is the boiled bones
of animals. An alternative substance is called Agar-Agar, which is
derived from seaweed. Another is made from the root of the Kuzu.
Agar-Agar is sold in noodle-like strands, powder, or in long blocks,
and is usually white-ish in colour. Some Kosher gelatines are made
with agar-agar, some are not. Some things that are vegan that are
replacing gelatin are: guar gum and carageenan. Only some
'emulsifiers' are vegan.

2.2 What can be substituted for eggs?

A company called Ener-G makes a powdered egg-substitute that they
claim is a suitable replacement for eggs in cooking. It costs
about $5.00 (U.S.) for the equivalent of 9 or 10 dozen eggs, and
it contains no animal products.

2 oz of soft tofu can be blended with some water and added to
substitute for an egg to add consistency.

One Tbsp flax seeds (found in natural food stores) with 3 Tbsp
water can be blended for 2 to 3 minutes, or boiled for 10 minutes
or until desired consistency is achieved to substitute for one egg.

1/2 mashed banana

1/4 cup applesauce or pureed fruit

1 tsp. soy flour plus 1 Tbsp. water to substitute for one egg.

2.3 What is rennet? Where is it found? How can it be avoided??

Rennet is derived from the stomach linings of calves. Rennet is
used to make cheese. True VEGETARIAN cheeses do not have rennet in
them, but a substitute. These substitutes can be either from
vegetable sources, or may be created in a lab. Vegetable rennet is
usually called 'rennin' to distinguish it from the animal-derived
type. ** NOTE ABOUT SOY CHEESE: Some soy cheeses contain cassein
which is a milk-product. The only true VEGAN cheeses in the U.S.
are: SOYMAGE and VEGAN RELLA. In the U.K. there is also a vegan
cheese: SCHEESE.

2.4 What is miso?

Miso is made from fermented soybeans, and usually is found in a
paste form. It is used as a flavouring agent, and for soup stocks.
Storing Miso: If it is a dark miso, like hatcho miso, or red miso,
it will keep for a while unrefrigerated, especially if it is 3
year miso. However, it does not hurt to refrigerate it. If it is
sweet miso like yellow, mellow white, or sweet white, it will not
keep unless refrigerated. Also, if the miso has been pasteurized,
it should be kept refrigerated. Warning! Some Japanese brands of Miso
contain fish stock!
Nutritional value, per tablespoon:
calories 36 g.
protein 2 g.
carbs 5 g.
fat 1 g.
sodium 629 mg.
(from Pennington, "Food Values of Portions Commonly Used")

2.5 What is tofu?

Tofu, or Soy Bean Curd, is a whitish substance made from soybeans.
It has a variety of uses in vegetarian cooking because of its
bland taste that soaks up other flavours. It comes in a couple of
varieties, basically amounting to soft and firm style. Soft tofu is
often used to make frostings for cakes, dips for chips and
vegetables, while the firmer style is generally used in stir-fries
and soups where it will hold its shape.

2.6 What is tempeh?

Tempeh is a somewhat meatlike substance made from fermented
soybeans. It is used in dishes like sloppy-joes, and has a rather
strong taste compared to tofu.

2.7 What is TVP?

Textured Vegetable Protein (or TVP) is a meat-like substance that
is used to boost the nutritional content of meals, while still
remaining relatively attractive-tasting. TVP may have a rather
high fat content, so check the label. If it contains "defatted"
soya flour, it should be low fat.

2.8 What is seitan?

Seitan is a form of wheat gluten. It is a high protein, low fat,
no cholesterol (of course) food that is usually found in the
refrigerated section of most organic groceries/health food stores.
It is usually near the tofu and typically comes in small tubs
(like margarine tubs). It is brown and sometimes comes in strips
1/4 to 1/2 inches thick. Seitan is made from whole wheat flour
which is mixed with water and kneaded. This dough undergoes a
simple process of rinsing and mixing to remove the starch and some
bran until a gluten is obtained. After boiling in water, this
glutenous dough is called Kofu, which can be further processed in
many ways. One of which is seitan. Kofu becomes seitan by
simmering in a stock of tamari soy sauce, water and kombu sea
vegetable. Seitan can be used in sandwiches, or to make dishes
such as sweet and sour seitan, seitan stir fry, salisbury seitan,

2.9 Can you feed a cat a vegetarian diet? A dog?

Both animals can be fed a vegetarian diet, although neither is a
vegan by nature -- dogs are omnivores, and cats are carnivores. While
both dogs and cats belong to the class carnivora, this doesn't mean a
lot, so does the panda bear and their diet is basically vegan. By
nature cats and dogs wouldn't eat anything like what is commonly
found in a can of pet food either. Special diets must be provided for
cats, as they require an amino acid called taurine -- found in the
muscles of animals. Synthetic taurine has been developed (and has
been used in commercial (non vegetarian) pet foods for years), and
vegetarian cats should be fed it as a supplement. Taurine deficiency
can result in blindness and even death. Cats also require pre-formed
vitamin A and arachidonic acid. The companies listed below provide
all these essential ingredients in their cat foods. Ask your vet
about changing your pet's diet.

Harbingers of a New Age
717 E. Missoula Ave, Troy MT 59935-9609 Phone: (406) 295-4944
[vegecat supplement for vegan or lacto-ovovegetarian cats]

Wow-Bow Distributors
309 Burr Rd., East Northport, NY 11731
(516)449-8572, 1-800-326-0230 (outside of NY only)
Dogs: 20lb. bag is $20.35 + shipping
Cats: supplement, 15oz. is $15.95
Call: Nature's Recipe for location of a distributor
near you. 1-800-843-4008

For cats with food allergies, Wysong has developed
a hypoallergenic diet:

Canine/Feline Anergen III, a vegetarian diet for
food sensitive cats, contains special high-protein
Wysong Corporation
Dept. CF, 1880 N. Eastman Ave.,
Midland, MI 48640.

Natural Life Pet Products, Inc. (For dogs)
Available from veterinarians and pet food centres.
Natural Life Pet Products, Inc.
Frontenac, Kansas 66762.

Evolution Healthy Pet Food
Evolution Diet Bldg., 287 East 6th Street,
Suite 70, St. Paul, MN 51101
Tel : 1-800-659-0104 / (651)228-0632 Fax : (651)228-0467

2.10 What is Nutritional Yeast? / Which ones provide B12?

Nutritional yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a food yeast,
grown on a molasses solution, and comes in powder or flake form.
It has a pleasant-tasting, cheesy flavour and can be used directly
on vegetables, baked potatoes, popcorn and other foods as a
condiment. It is different from brewer's yeast or torula yeast.
It can often be used by those sensitive to other yeasts.

Ms. Carlyee Hammer at Universal Products (the parent company of
Red Star, (414)-935-3910) indicates that ONLY ONE variety of Red
Star nutritional yeast (product number T-6635+) is fortified with
B12 at the level of 8 ug/g.

Ms. Carlyee also claimed that other varieties of "nutritional"
yeast contain vitamin B12 at less than 1 ug/g, but was unaware
whether this was determined by microbial assay or not. Microbial
assays for vitamin B12 are no longer considered reliable due to
problems with the cross-reactivity of corrinoids. She indicated
that Hazelton Laboratories (608-241-7210) did the assay.

From the above two paragraphs, one might conclude that Red Star
T-6635+ nutritional yeast, and probably no other variety, is a
reliable dietary source of B12 at this time.

2.11 Are there vegan marshmellows available?

Yes, from a company called Emes located in Lombard, IL, U.S.A. Phone:
(708) 627-6204. The package lists gelatin, but it is not animal
derived. Most "kosher gelatin" isn't vegetarian (it's either made from
fish cartilage or supervised by a less strict rabbinic authority that
permits regular gelatin (a recent issue of "Kashrus" has an article on
kosher gelatin)), but Emes kosher gelatin is made from carrageenan (and
you can often buy Emes "gelatin" separately).

2.12 What airlines serve vegetarian meals?

Most airlines now serve vegetarian meals. Call the airline ahead
of time to make your request, and it is suggested that you confirm
your meal twice. For more information have a look, in Subject 3
below, at The World Guide to Vegetarianism. The '/other2' file
contains details of individual airlines.

2.13 Should I be worried about getting enough protein on a
vegetarian diet?

The short answer is: "No, sufficient protein can be obtained by
eating a variety of foods", but here is a longer explanation:

Protein is synthesized by the human body out of individual amino
acids. The body breaks down food into individual amino acids
and then reassembles the proteins it requires.

All amino acids must be present in the body to make proteins.
Those that can be synthesized from other amino acids are called
"unessential" amino acids. You can live on a diet deficient of
these if you eat enough extra of the other amino acids to
synthesize these. Those that cannot be synthesized from other
amino acids are called "essential" amino acids and must be
present in the diet.

Protein that contains all essential amino acids is called
"complete" protein. Protein that contains some, but not all
essential amino acids is called "incomplete" protein. It used
to be believed that all amino acids must be eaten at the same
time to form complete proteins. We now know that incomplete
proteins can be stored in the body for many days to be combined
with other incomplete proteins. As long as all essential amino
acids are in the diet, it does not matter if the proteins are
complete or incomplete.

The amount of protein recorded on food labels only lists the
complete proteins. A product may contain much higher amounts of
incomplete protein that is not listed. Combining such products
may increase the total amount of protein beyond the levels

The 1989 revision of the FDA's RDA suggests a protein intake of
44-63 grams. Many scientists think this number is too high.
Most scientists agree with this number.

Here is another (from "Physicians Committee for Responsible


In the past, some people believed one could never get too much
protein. In the early 1900's, Americans were told to eat well
over 100 grams of protein a day. And as recently as the
1950's, health-conscious people were encouraged to boost their
protein intake. The reality is that the average American
takes in twice the amount of protein he or she needs. Excess
protein has been linked with osteoporosis, kidney disease,
calcium stones in the urinary tract, and some cancers. Despite
all this, many people still worry about getting enough

The Building Blocks of Life:

People build the proteins of their bodies from amino acids,
which, in turn, come from the proteins they eat. Protein is
abundant in nearly all of the foods people eat. A varied diet
of beans, peas, lentils, grains, and vegetables contains all
of the essential amino acids. Animal products are high in
protein, but are undesirable because of their high fat and
cholesterol content. Fat and cholesterol promote heart
disease, cancer, and many other health problems. One can
easily meet the body's protein requirements with plant foods.
It used to be believed that various plant foods had to be
eaten together to get their full protein value, but many
nutrition authorities, including the American Dietetic
Association, have determined that intentional combining is not
necessary.1 As long as one's diet includes a variety of
grains, legumes, and vegetables, protein needs are easily met.

2.14 What about Vitamin B12 on a vegan diet?

The data on B12 is still coming in, so it is impossible to say
"Its no problem....", however, the latest information suggests
that acquiring enough B12 is not as problematic as it was once
thought. If you are concerned about inadequate B12, there are
many foods which are fortified with B12, in addition to vitamin
pills. Here is the most recent information:

From the book:
Simply Vegan: Quick Vegetarian Meals, by Debra Wasserman and
Nutrition Section by Reed Mangels, Ph.D., R.D.
Published (1990/1991) by the Vegetarian Resource Group,
P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203, (410) 366-VEGE.
ISBN 0-931411-05-X

Vitamin B12

Summary: The requirement for vitamin B12 is very low.
Non-animal sources include Nutri-Grain cereal (1.4 ounces
supplies the adult RDA) and Red Star T-6635+ nutritional
yeast (1-2 teaspoons supplies the adult RDA). It is
especially important for pregnant and lactating women,
infants, and children to have reliable sources of vitamin
B12 in their diets.

Vitamin B12 is needed for cell division and blood formation.
Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12 except when they are
contaminated by microorganisms. Thus, vegans need to look to
other sources to get vitamin B12 in their diet. Although the
minimum requirement for vitamin B12 is quite small, 1/1000 of a
milligram (1 microgram) a day for adults, a vitamin B12
deficiency is a very serious problem leading ultimately to
irreversible nerve damage. Prudent vegans will include sources
of vitamin B12 in their diets. However, vitamin B12 deficiency
is actually quite rare even among long-term vegans.

Bacteria in the human intestinal tract do make vitamin B12.
However, the majority of these bacteria are found in the
large intestine. Vitamin B12 does not appear to be absorbed
from the large intestine.

Normally, vitamin B12 is secreted into the small intestine
along with bile and other secretions and is reabsorbed, but
this does not add to the body's vitamin B12 stores. Since
small amounts of vitamin B12 are not reabsorbed, it is
possible that eventually vitamin B12 stores will be used up.
However, we may be quite efficient at re-using vitamin B12
so that deficiency is rare.

Some bacteria in the small intestine apparently produce
vitamin B12 which can be absorbed. This is one possible
explanation for why so few cases of vitamin B12 deficiency
are reported. Perhaps our bacteria are making vitamin B12
for us.

At this time, research is continuing on vitamin B12
requirements. Some researchers have even hypothesized that
vegans are more efficient than the general public in
absorbing vitamin B12. Certainly for other nutrients, such
as iron, absorption is highest on low dietary intakes.
However, these are only speculations. We need to look for
reliable dietary sources for vitamin B12 until we can
determine whether or not other sources can supply adequate
vitamin B12.

Although some vegans may get vitamin B12 from inadequate
hand washing, this is not a reliable vitamin B12 source.
Vegans who previously ate animal-based foods may have
vitamin B12 stores that will not be depleted for 20 to 30
years or more. However, long-term vegans, infants,
children, and pregnant and lactating women (due to increased
needs) should be especially careful to get enough vitamin

Few reliable vegan food sources for vitamin B12 are known.
Tempeh, miso, and seaweed often are labeled as having large
amounts of vitamin B12. However, these products are not
reliable sources of the vitamin because the amount of
vitamin B12 present depends on the type of processing the
food undergoes. Also, Victor Herbert, a leading authority
on vitamin B12 states that the amount on the label cannot be
trusted because the current method for measuring vitamin B12
in foods measures both active and inactive forms of vitamin
B12. The inactive form (also called analogues) actually
interferes with normal vitamin B12 absorption and
metabolism. These foods may contain more inactive than
active vitamin B12.

The RDA (which includes a safety factor) for adults for
vitamin B12 is 2 micrograms daily. Two micrograms of
vitamin B12 are provided by 1 teaspoon of Red Star T-6635+
yeast powder or 1-1/2 teaspoons of mini-flake yeast or 2
rounded teaspoons of large-flake yeast. Of course, since
vitamin B12 is stored, you could use larger amounts of
nutritional yeast less often. A number of the recipes in
this book contain nutritional yeast.

Another alternative source of vitamin B12 is fortified
cereal. Nutri-Grain cereal does contain vitamin B12 at this
time and 1.4 ounces of Nutri-Grain, or a little less than 1
cup, will provide 2 micrograms of vitamin B12. We recommend
checking the label of your favorite cereal since
manufacturers have been known to stop including vitamin B12.
New labeling laws do not require labels to include the
actual amount of vitamin B12 in a food. However, added
vitamin B12 will be listed under ingredients and you can
write to the company inquiring about the amount of vitamin
B12 in a serving.

Other sources of vitamin B12 are fortified soy milk (check
the label as this is rarely available in the US), vitamin
B12 fortified meat analogues (food made from wheat gluten or
soybeans to resemble meat, poultry or fish) [Midland Harvest
products contain B12.], and vitamin B12 supplements. There
are vitamin supplements which do not contain animal

2.15 How is "vegan" pronounced?

The word was invented by the UK Vegan society in the 1940's They
pronounced it "vee-gn". This is the most common pronunciation in
the UK today. No one can say this pronunciation in "wrong", so
this is also the politically correct pronunciation.

In the US, common pronunciations are "vee-jan" and "vay-gn" in
addition to "vee-gn", though the American Vegan Society
says the correct pronunciation is as per the UK.

The UK, and US and other places have other pronunciations.

This is sometimes a touchy subject, so be prepared to change your

2.16 Can I eat at fast food places like McDonalds or Taco-Bell?

Unfortunately there is no simple answer to this. Many Companies
allow individual stores to decide part of their menu, or the
ingredients used. In general, you should:

1. Ask for a nutrition information booklet. Asking an employee may
not be enough.

2. If the food in question contains an undesired element, ask if
it can be substituted for, or deleted altogether.

3. Fill out a comment card, if you think their menu does not have
enough selection. If the company receives enough of these, they
may decide to follow up on them.

4. Taco-Bell do not use lard anymore in their cooking.

2.17 Is Maple Syrup vegetarian/vegan?

Yes, rumours abound about maple syrup containing pork fat.
The US vegan society has checked all known sources and found
that they are all suitable for vegans.

2.18 Is beer or other alcoholic beverages vegetarian/vegan?

Finings are substances often added to beer (especially British beer
or "bitter") or wine during fermentation to help clarify out
particles and yeast, leaving the finished product clear. Finings
are not present in the finished product in any significant
quantity, their purpose is to settle out of the product, not stay
in suspension. OTOH, if a chemical analysis were to be performed,
there would probably be a few molecules of a fining agent still to
be found. Some finings are animal derived, the most common are
isinglass, made from the dried swim bladders of sturgeons, gelatin,
egg or blood albumin (in wines) and caseinates (from milk, also
used in wines). However many non-animal derived sources also exist,
the commonest ones being bentonite (clay), Irish Moss (a seaweed),
silicon dioxide and polyclar. Beer brewed according to the
Reinheitsgebot (German purity law) is not prohibited from using
finings since it was generally assumed that finings were not
present in the finished product.

Animal products are also sometimes used to alter the flavour of the
wine/beer or control the head on a beer. See the
FAQ for more details (where a lot of this has been stolen.-)

Most spirits/mixers are suitable for vegans, common exceptions
include some vodkas (may be cleared through bone charcoal) and
Campari (contains cochineal, an insect derived colouring).

2.19 Is sugar vegetarian/vegan?

Some refined sugars use bone charcoal as a decolourant. In the UK
Tate and Lyle and Billingtons sugars are free of animal substances.
British Sugar, trading as Silver Spoon (the largest UK supplier)
state that their white sugar is vegan but they cannot guarantee
their brown sugars as some bone charcoal may be used by their
suppliers. No data is presently available concerning sugar in other

Subject: 3 Other sources of information on the Net

The most prominent World Wide Web (WWW) index to online vegetarian
information is the Vegetarian Pages -

An ftp site where you can get some vegetarian information is:

The network address for another vegetarian list: (internet) or VEGLIFE@VTVM1 (BitNet).
It is a LISTSERV type list. To subscribe, send mail to with the command "sub veglife Your Full
Name" in the body. Also try the commands "help" and "index

The network address for a vegan list:
It is a LISTPROC type list. To subscribe, send mail to with the command "sub VEGAN-L Your Full
Name" in the body. Also try the commands "help" and "index

An ftp site where you can get some vegetarian recipes:
the recipes are in the nicbbs.391 subdirectory and have a filename
of VEG_RECI and a filetype of either DIGEST, INDEX, or VOLxxxxx.
Note that this is a VM system so you MUST do the cd nicbbs.391
before you do anything after logging in as anonymous, otherwise
you will have no working directory.

The World Guide to Vegetarianism is a 14-part listing of vegetarian
restaurants, vegetarian-friendly restaurants, natural food stores,
vegetarian organizations, etc. Each part is posted on an independent
(approximately quarterly) schedule to,, rec.answers, and news.answers.

You can obtain the latest officially posted copy of this guide by
sending an e-mail to with any combination of
the following lines in your message body:

send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/index
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/usa1
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/usa2
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/usa3
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/usa4
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/usa5
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/california1
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/california2
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/california3
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/canada1
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/canada2
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/europe1
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/europe2
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/other1
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/other2
send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/faq (you're reading it now)

The Guide is also available via anonymous ftp from in the
directory /pub/usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide. The FAQ for is in the file /pub/usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/faq.

On the WWW, the Guide may be found in easy-to-use HTML format using
the following URL for the Vegetarian Pages:
For submitting updates to this document, the most preferred way is by
using forms accessed via this WWW site.

An ftp site for a list of Indian restaurants (in the US): under ~/pub/indian

Vegetarian recipes can be found in the newsgroup
This newsgroup usually breaks down all recipes into VEGAN, OVO, LACTO
and OVO-LACTO categories.

A good WWW site to peruse and find out more information is: is being archived at in the directory:


Vegetarian Resource Group, c/o, will answer questions
related to vegetarianism.

For a list of other resources available take a look at the Internet
section in '/other2' in the above World Guide to Vegetarianism.

Subject: 4 Addresses and Phone Numbers

4.1 Vegetarian and Vegan Groups:


Vegan Society of Australia
PO Box 85, Seaford, VIC 3198. Phone (03) 862-1686

Australian Vegetarian Society (NSW)
PO Box 65, Paddington NSW 2021, Ph. (02) 698 4339; Fax (02) 310 5365

Australian Vegetarian Society (ACT)
PO Box 1786, Canberra ACT 2601, Ph. (06) 247 2882; Fax (06) 248 5343

Vegetarian/Vegan Society of Queensland
PO Box 400, South Brisbane QLD 4101, (07) 300 1274; Fax (07) 300 9320

Vegetarian and Natural Health (NQ)
PO Box 1698, Aitken Vale QLD 4814, Ph (077) 75 3465

Australian Vegetarian Society (Vic)
PO Box 220, North Melbourne VIC 3051, Ph (03) 329 1374

Vegetarian Society of Western Australia
PO Box 220, North Perth WA 6006, Ph/fax (09) 275 5682; Ph (09) 474 2172

Vegetarian Society of South Australia
PO Box 46, Rundle Mall, Adelaide SA 5000, Ph (08) 261 3194

The Vegan Society (NSW)
PO Box 467, Broadway, NSW 2007. Phone (02) 436-1373

Organization For Farm Animal Liberation
PO BOX E65, East Parramatta, NSW 2150. Phone (02) 683 5991 (AH)

The Jewish Vegetarian Society (NSW)
C/- Tom Kramer 95/97 The Boulevarde, Strathfield, NSW 2135.
Phone (02) 642-3110 (AH) or (02) 683 5991 (BH)

The Australian Natural Hygiene Society, "Hygia"
31 Cobar Road, Arcadia, NSW 2159.
Phone (02) 653-1115 or (02) 651-2457

Tableland Vegetarian Society
PO Box 25, Millaa Millaa, QLD 4886


Canada EarthSave Society
Suite 103 - 1093 West Broadway, Vancouver, BC, V6H 1E2
Phone (604) 731-5885.
Canada Earthsave describes itself as "an educational non-profit
organization that promotes awareness of the environmental and
health consequences of our food choices.

The Vegetarian Dining Club of Ottawa
contact ba285@FreeNet.Carleton.Ca, or, Tel:(613)729-7282


Alte Bergheimer Str. 7a 69115 Heidelberg
Phone: (prefix) (0)6221-385702

Prachter Str. 1
57589 Pracht
Tel: (+49)2292/40014 Fax: (+49)2292/40016

Grueneburgweg 154, 60323 Frankfurt
Phone: (prefix) (0)69-559589

c/o CILA, Braunschweiger Str. 22, 44145 Dortmund

Blumenstr. 3, 30159 Hannover,
Phone and Fax: (prefix) (0)511-3632050
They publish the paper "DER VEGETARIER"

also see


Nederlandse Vegetarirsbond (Dutch Vegetarian Society), Larenseweg 26,
1221 CS Hilversum, tel 035-6834796, fax 035-6834813

PETA Nederland, PO Box 810, 2501 CV Den Haag, tel. 070-3563130

Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme (Dutch vegan Society), Postbus
1087, 6801 BB Arnhem, tel 026-4420746

Orpheus, Animal friendly BBS, +31 (0)20 4941119 (24h/d, 28k8)

Proefdiervrij, the biggest society against vivisection in the

Digidorp Vegatopia (digital village Vegatopia) at

Dutch magazine for vegatarians: Sla! (salad).
Available at all magazine stands in Holland, issue every 2 months.
Recipes, interviews and food info. More info:


Vegetarisk Information, Valborg Alle 34, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark,
tel. +45 31 17 99 11

Dansk Vegetar-Forening, Borups Alle 131, DK-2000 Frederiksberg,
Denmark, tel. +45 38 34 24 48 (old society - not easy to get in
contact with...)

Vegetarianerforeningen, att. Paal Thorbjoernsen, Smedgata 7,
N-0651 Oslo, Norway, tel. +47 22 68 88 18

Svenska Vegetariska Foereningen, Tjaerhovsgatan 1, Box 4256,
S-102 66 Stockholm, Sweden, tel. +46 87 02 11 16 (9-11)

United Kingdom:

The Vegetarian Society of the U.K.
Parkdale, Dunham Road, Altringham, Cheshire, WA14 4QG
(061)928-0793 (country code 44, for overseas callers)
publishes "The Vegetarian" -- yours with membership

The Vegan Society
7 Battle Road,
St Leonards-on-Sea,
East Sussex TN37 7AA
Phone: (0424) 427393
publishes "The Vegan" quarterly, free with membership

PO Box 212
Cheshire CW1 4SD

London Vegans hold monthly meetings on the last Wednesday of
every month <except for December> at Millman Street Community
Rooms, 50 Millman Street, London WC1 <entrance through alleyway
adjacent to 38a >. The meetings usually run from 18.30 <doors
open> to 21.30 and they usually have guest speakers. All are
welcome. In addition to the monthly meetings they have regular
trips to restaurants and monthly walks.

United States:

American Vegan Society
501 Old Harding Highway, Malag, NJ 08328
publishes "Ahimsa" magazine.

North American Vegetarian Society
P.O. Box 72, Dolgerville, NY 13329
publishes "Vegetarian Voice"

Vegetarian Resource Group
P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203
publishes "Vegetarian Journal"
Hotline for Vegetarian's questions:

Vegetarian Awareness Network:
1-800-USA-VEGE, (615)558-8343 in Nashville, TN

Vegetarian Times Bookshelf
P.O. Box 446, Mt. Morris, IL 61054

Other European:


Office: Vondelstraat 9A2, NL-1054 GB Amsterdam
Phone/Fax: 0031-206169146

Information and Contacts in Europe:

Denmark : Henrik Hedegard, Olivenvej 57, DK-6000 Kolding
Belgium : Vegetariersbond vzw, Koewacht 16A, B-9190 Stekene
England : Vegetarian Society (UK), Parkdale, Dunham Road,
Altrincham, Cheshire WA14 4QG
England : VIVA! Juliet Gellatly, PO Box 212, Crewe, Cheshire, CW1 4SD
England : Oxford Vegetarians, 57 Sharland Close, Grove Oxon, OX12 0OAF
Finland : Elavan Ravinnon Yhdistys Ry.,Kasarminkatu 19A, SF-00130 Helsinki
France : Jean Montagard, Chemin Combe Nicette, F-06330 Roquefort-les-Pins
France : Gertrud Krueger, Rue Brandmatt 22, F-68380 Metzeral
Italy : Associazione Vegetariana Italiana, Via Bazzini 4, I-20131 Milano
Lithuania : Eduardas Mickevicius, Antakalnio 67-17, LIT-2040 Vilnius
Netherlands: Nederlandse Vegetariersbond, Larenseweg 26, NL-1221 CM Hilversum
Netherlands: Nederlandse Vereiniging voor Veganisme, Postbus 1087,
NL-6801 BB Arnheim
Ireland : Vegetarian Society of Ulster, 66 Ravenshill Gardens,
Ballynafeigh, Belfast
Norway : Norges Vegetariske Landsvorbun, Munkedamsveien 3B, N-0161 Oslo 1
Austria : Oestereichische Vegetarier-Union, E. Laupert,
Brucknerstrasse 59/18, A-8010 Graz
Poland : Krystyna Chomicz-Jung, Gdanska 2m.97, PL-01-633 Warszaw
Romania : Dr. Mircea Matusan, Str. Costei no 12, RO-3400 Cluj-Napoca
Russia : Tatyana Pavlova, Volsky bulvar d39 k3 kv23, RUS-109462 Moscow
Sweden : Vegetariska Foreningen, Box 4256, S-10266 Stockholm
Sweden : Ulla Troeng, Klovervagen 6, S-61700 Mariefred
Switzerland: "regeneration" Edwin Heller, Schwarzenbachweg 16, CH 8049 Zurich
Switzerland: Schweizer Verein f. Vegetarismus, Renato Pichler, Postfach,
CH-9466 Sennwald
Slowakia : Vegetarianska spolocnost, Prazka 9, SK-81104 Bratislava
Spain : Spanish Vegan Society, Apartado Postal 38127, E-28080 Madrid

Contact to the EVU: Hildegund Scholvien, Friedhofstrasse 12, 67693 Fischbach,
Germany - Phone: 06305-272, Fax: 06305-5256

The World Guide to Vegetarianism (see Subject 3 above) lists all
all known relevant organisations under the appropriate country.

4.2 Cruelty-free products information

Route 1 Box 206, Milner, GA 30257

The Body Shop -- in local shopping centers
some of its products may contain dairy

Beauty Without Cruelty
17 SW. 12th St., New York, NY, 10011
P.O. Box 19373 San Rafael, CA 94913

Compassionate Consumer
P.O. Box 27, Jericho, NY 11753

Heart's Desire
1307 Dwight Way, Dept C, Berkeley CA 94702

Humane Street USA
467 Saratoga Ave. #300, San Jose, CA 95129

Spare the Animals
P.O. Box 233, Tiverton, RI 02878

Vegan Street Company
P.O. Box 5525, Rockville, MD

PETA: write for a free list of companies.
YOUR BODY, Unit 53, Milmead Industrial Estate, Mill Mead Road, London N17 9QU
tel: 081-808-6948 fax: 081-801-1611

MARTHA HILL Ltd., The Old Vicarage, Laxton, Corby, Northants, NN17 3AT
tel: 0780-450259 (24 hour) fax: 0780-450398
advice line: 0780-450284 (8am-5pm Mon-Fri)
(uses honey in some of the products)

Veganline, 2 Avenue Gardens, London SW14 8BP sell cheap leather-
substitute jackets mailorder. They do despatch work for other vegan
companies: 0181 369 3535 (HTTP://

MOKO, Unit 12, Four Ashes Insustrial Estate, Station Rd, Four Ashes,
West Midlands WV10 7DB sell cheapish leather substitute shoes and
jackets: 01902 798 988

UK leather substitutes are covered by a new page on the world wide web:

Grueneburgweg 154, 60323 Frankfurt
Phone: (prefix) (0)69-559589

Further US sources are listed in The World Guide to Vegetarianism
file '/usa1'. See Subject 3 above.

4.3 Non-leather shoe outlets

See the posting "FAQ:Leather Alternatives" in for a
complete list of non-leather products or look at:

or contact Tom Swiss on

4.4 MailOrder Book Outlets

The Mail Order Catalog
P.O. Box 180, Summertown, TN 38483
1-800-695-2241 or 615-964-2241 or email


Vegetarian Resource Group, P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203
(410)366-VEGE or mail

Further US sources are listed in The World Guide to Vegetarianism
file '/usa1'. See subject 3 above.

Subject: 5 Recommended Literature

5.1 Cookbooks

The Vegan Cookbook, Alan Wakeman and Gordon Baskerville London,
Faber and Faber, 1986; this has basic as well as complex stuff.

Friendly Foods, Brother Ron Pickarski, Berkely, Ten Speed, 1991,

Laurel's Kitchen

Moosewood (all selections)

The Complete Vegetarian Cuisine by Rose Elliot; many dishes are

Fast Vegetarian Feasts by Martha Rose Shulman

Tassajara Cooking; cooking made simple!

The Vegetarian Epicure I and II by Anna Thomas

American Whole Foods Cookbook

The How to Overthrow Any Government Without Violence Cookbook by
James P. Martin; vegan cookbook, may be out of print

The Joy of Cooking Naturally by Peggy Dameron; vegan, Seventh Day
Adventist (but not 'preachy'), fairly low-fat, includes honey.

Country Life Vegetarian Cookbook ed. by Diana J. Fleming; see

Of These Ye May Eat Freely; see above, special nightshade-free

The Art of Indian Vegetarian Cooking by Yamuna devi

Eastern Vegetarian Cooking by Madhur Jaffrey

Cooking from an Italian Garden plb. by HBJ

The Cranks Cookbook; recipes from London restaurant "Cranks"

The Findhorn Cookbook by Barbara Friedlander; feeds 1 to 100...

The Apartment Vegetarian Cookbook by Lindsay Miller

Back to Eden by Jethro Kloss; definitive herb book with recipes.

Bean Banquets from Boston to Bombay by Patricia R. Gregory

Neither Fish Nor Fowl by Sarah Beattie.

Eat More, Weigh Less by Dean Ornish, M.D.

The Seventh-Day Diet, "How the 'healthiest people in America' live
better, longer, slimmer -- and how you can too", by Chris Rucker
and Jan Hoffman. Random House, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-394-58473-2.

5.2 Non-Fiction

Diet for a New America

Diet for a Small Planet

Animal Liberation

The MacDougal Plan and The MacDougal Program

A Vegetarian Sourcebook by Keith Akers

Vegan Nutrition: Pure and Simple by Micheal Klaper, MD

Pregnancy, Children, and the Vegan Diet by Micheal Klaper, MD

Vegan Nutrition, a survey of research by Gill Langley MA PhD

The Vegetable Passion by Janet Barkas; history of vegetarianism.

Simply Vegan by Debra Wasserman, $12.00 from VRG, Box 1463,
Baltimore, MD 21203

The animal rights FAQ and lots of other information is available from:
or from Donald Graft on:

5.3 Travel & Restaurant Books World Guide to Vegetarianism. See listing in
above Subject 3 of this FAQ for details.

Vegetarian Journal's Guide to Natural Foods Restaurants in the
U.S. and Canada. 1993. ISBN 0-89529-571-7. $11.95. By the
Vegetarian Resource Group, PO Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203.
Tel. (410) 366-VEGE. Lists restaurants, vacation spots, camps,
vegetarian organizations.

The Vegan Society's "The Vegan Holiday and Restaurant Guide"
(concentrating on England, Scotland and Wales).

"Europe on 10 Salads a Day" by Mary Jane and Greg Edwards
Mustang Publishing, P.O. Box 3004, Memphis, TN, 38173.
Cost: $9.95 (U.S.) plus $1.50 postage.
Includes: prices, cover charges, hours, addresses, and credit card
acceptance, for restaurants in most European countries.

5.4 Periodicals

Good Medicine, PCRM, PO Box 6322, Wash. DC 20015 (202) 686-2210

North American Vegetarian Society (Vegetarian Voice magazine)
$18 US/$21 foreign, NAVS, PO Box 72, Dolgeville, NY 13329

Vegetarian Times, (800) 435-9610 or (708) 848-8100

Vegetarian Gourmet, Chitra Publications, 2 Public Avenue,
Montrose, PA

The Vegan, The Vegan Society, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea,
East Sussex TN37 7AA, UK.

Ahimsa, American Vegan Society, 501 Old Harding Highway, Malag,
NJ 08328. (609) 694-2887

Vegetarian Journal, Vegetarian Resource Group, P.O. Box 1463,
Baltimore, MD 21203. (410) 366-8343

BBC Vegetarian Good Food Guide, P.O. Box 425, Woking GU21 1GP, UK

Subject: 6 Animal Rights Organizations

Humane Society of the U.S.
2100 L Lt., N.W., Washington DC 20037 (USA)
Posters against animal research available.

FARM (Farm Animal Reform Movement)
Box 30654
Bethesda MD 20824
Phone: 800-MEATOUT
publishes quarterly newsletter and informational handouts.

PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals)
P.O. Box 42516, Washington, DC 20015 (USA)
publishes "Cruelty-free Shopping Guide" and informational

National Anti-Vivisection Society
53 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 1550, Chicago, IL 60604 (USA)
Free Cruelty-free products listing.

Also check the animal rights FAQ available from:
or from Donald Graft on

Subject: 7 Issues

7.1 Rainforest beef -- Two different looks at the situation.

Hamburger chains frequently get blamed for deforestation in Latin
America. This isn't really true, and saying it over and over just
makes us look bad, since knowledgable carnivores can just refute
it. The situation is this: in Brazil in particular, but
throughout the region, governments, attempting to repay
crippling foreign loans, sell/give away land to 'developers' at
fire sale prices as long as they do something to 'develop' the
land. The cheapest way to do this is to clear cut and use the
land for cattle pasture. Thus cattle grazing is a main cause of
deforestation. The problems w/going from this to blaming the
Whopper are: as the knowledgable meat-eater will tell you, most
Latin American cattle have hoof and mouth disease and just waste
land for the sake of wasting land because they can't be sold for
beef. As a result, the Amazon is a net beef importer, and second,
rainforest land is so poor that it's only suitable for grazing for
a few years. An excellent book on this and other rainforest
issues is _The_Fate_of_the_Forest_ by Susana Hecht and Alexander

Other sources indicate that, while South America IS a net importer
of cattle (ignoring the huge quantities of processed meat product
exported from Argentina and Brazil to the U.S.), central america
does export live cattle to the U.S. These cows are labeled as U.S.
when they cross the country line. Another important aspect to
this is that soya cattle feed, grown on rain forest plots, is
exported in huge quantities to feed the cattle in other countries.
It is not possible to say that the beef burgers in the U.S. are
not directly or indirectly responsible for the destruction of the
rain forest. It is not possible to say that the U.S. imports NO
beef from the rain forest. Even if the cow herself has not been on
rain forest land, the food that she has eaten most likely has.

7.2 Hidden Animal Products

See the separate posting in, for a much larger list of
substances derived from animals. The subject is "LIST OF

It is very difficult to avoid animals products in this 'modern day
and age'. Here is a list of some common things that surprisingly
contain animal derivatives and others that are safe.

CASEIN: This is a product made when milk is heated with an acid,
like lactic acid. This stuff mostly occurs in
"no-lactose" soy cheeses like Soyco, Soy Kaas, AlmondRella,
Zero-FatRella, HempRella, and TofuRella Slices. The
labels say "lactose-free" (lactose is another milk
derivative), but that doesn't mean they are therefore
vegan, as we used to incorrectly assume. Soymage soy
cheese is 100% vegan, but it's kind of gross. Vegan-Rella
is also totally vegan. Casein is also used in plastics,
adhesives, and paint manufacturing.

CASEINATE: Casein mixed with a metal, like calcium caseinate or
sodium caseinate.

CHEWING GUM: Some chewing gums contain glycerine. Wrigleys gum
contains a vegetarian source of glycerine.

ENVELOPES: Apparently most envelopes have a synthetic glue on
them, not an animal or fish based glue.

MARGARINES: Can contain fish and other marine oils. Many
margarines contain whey.

MOHAIR: From goats. They can be sheared or skinned.

NOUGAT: Usually contains gelatine.

ORGANIC: Dried blood, bone/hoof meal and fish meal can all be
used a fertilizers etc. Try finding out about Veganic
Gardening as an alternative, by using seaweed
fertilizers which are widely available.

PASTA: May contain egg, especially if fresh. Some pasta in
Italy contains squids's ink; this can easily be
recognized because the pasta is black.

PASTES: Glues. May be animal or fish derived.

PASTRY: Animal fats used in most shop-baked pies etc. Check

PHOSTATES: Derived from glycerol and fatty acids. May be from
animal bones too.

PHOTOS: Developing paper contains gelatine.

POSTAGE STAMPS: These do not contain an animal or fish glue.

PROGESTERONE: A hormone. May have been taken from the urine of a
pregnant mare, and could be used in hormone
creams, etc.

RENNET: An enzyme taken from the stomach of a newly killed calf.
Used in the cheese making process. Look for rennin or
the words "made without animal rennet".

RUBBER: Processed with animal products.

SHORTENING: Can be made from animal fats. Used in the food
industry especially pastries and biscuits.

SOAP: Most soaps are not vegetarian because of the tallow
(animal fats) used in their production.

STEARATE: This usually comes in the form of _calcium stearate_,
and it is found in hard candies like Gobstoppers and
Sweetarts as well as other places. It comes from
stearic acid, which usually is derived from tallow, or
animal fat. Stearate is also used in vinyls (like car
seats) and plastics.

SUEDE: Leather.

SWEETS: Watch out for gelatine, eg.: wine gums. Nearly all
mints eg.: Polo, Trebor, Extra Strong etc contain
gelatine. See also Nougat.

VIOLINS: Traditionally violins are stuck together with an animal
based glue. The bows are usually made from horse hair.

WHEY: Liquid part of Milk

7.3 Names of animals versus names of animal based foods

It is a common misconception, and often argued wrongly by
vegetarians,that the use, in the English language, of pig/pork,
calf/veal, cow/beef, sheep/mutton etc. has something to do with
meat-eaters pretending they're not eating animals. This is not the

In mediaeval England the peasants were Anglo-Saxon but the
aristocracy was Norman-French, this followed the conquest of
England by William of Normandy (France) in 1066. The aristocracy
compelled the peasants to looks after the animals but rarely
allowed them eat any meat (see the Food in England thread for more

The peasants called the animals by the Anglo-Saxon names - pig,
calf, sheep etc. but the aristocracy, who ate the meat, called it
by the French names for the same animals - porc (pig), veau (calf),
boeuf (ox or bullock), mouton (sheep). This got Anglicised slightly
over the centuries but this distinction between these animals and
the meat has remained in every English speaking country around the
world. Animals which were not commonly eaten by the Norman-French
aristocracy, eg chicken, turkey, rabbit etc, have the same name for
the animal and the meat.