The Eight Principles

External Pattern: acute illness with sudden onset fever and chills, body aches, headache, aversion to wind, cold and/or heat. Tongue: normal, thin coat.
Internal Pattern: chronic conditions, internal organ dysfunction, pain and discomfort in trunk, digestive disorders, changes in stool and urine, fever with no chills or dislike of cold, changes in tongue color and coat.
Excess Pattern: Ponderous, heavy movement, heavy, coarse perspiration, pressure and touch increase discomfort. Tongue: thick coating.
Deficiency Pattern: Frail, weak movement, tiredness, shortness of breath, pressure relieves discomfort, inactive, passive appearance, low voice, little appetite, dizziness. Tongue: pale color, thin coat.
Heat Pattern: Red face, fever, sensation of heat, dislike of heat, cold reduces discomfort, rapid movements, outgoing manner, thirst or desire for cold drinks, dark urine, constipation. Tongue: red color, yellow coat.
Cold Pattern: Pale, white face, cold limbs, fear of cold, heat reduces discomfort, slow movements, withdrawn manner, no thirst or a desire for hot drinks, clear urine, watery stools. Tongue: pale color, white coat.
Yin Pattern:
Yang Pattern: